Appendix:Indonesian pronunciation

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Indonesian pronunciations in Wiktionary entries.

Consonants edit

IPA Examples English approximation
b bola[1] beau
d dari[1] do
jari job
f fikir, visa[2] festival
ɡ gigi[3] gain
h habis, tokoh hat
j yakin, kaya yes
k kalah[1][3] sky
l lama clean
m makan moon
n nakal note
ŋ ngarai feeling
ɲ nyaman canyon
p pola[1] spy
r raja, dari, pasar Spanish río[4]
s saya six
ʃ syak[2] shoe
t tari[1] sty
cari Like check but softer, said between s and ch.
v visa[2] vision
w waktu, Jawa we
x khas[2] Scottish loch
z zaman[2] zero
ʔ bapak, rakyat [1][3] uh-oh

Vowels edit

IPA Examples English approximation
a ajar, buka[5] father
e serong, kare[6][7] clay[8]
ɛ pek, teh, bebek[7] festival
i bila, ini see
ɪ pilih, yakin, kirim[7] bin
o roda, toko[6][7] sole[9]
ɔ pohon[7] off
u upah, baru tool
ʊ tujuh, rumput[7] foot
ə elang taken, about
IPA Examples English approximation
au, aʊ[11] kalau[6] how
ai, aɪ[11] capai[6] bye
ei, eɪ[11] murbei survey (uncommon)
oi, oɪ[11] sepoi boy (uncommon)
ui, uɪ[11] fengsui British ruin (uncommon)

Other symbols edit

Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress
Placed before the stressed syllable[12]

Notes edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 /p/, /t/, /k/ are unaspirated, as in the Romance languages, or as in English spy, sty, sky. In final position, they are unreleased [p̚, t̪̚, ʔ̚], with final k being a glottal stop. /b, d/ are also unreleased, and therefore devoiced, [p̚, t̚]. There is generally no liaison: they remain unreleased even when followed by a vowel, as in kulit ubi "potato skins", though they are pronounced as a normal medial consonant when followed by a suffix. However, liaison could occur occasionally.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 The fricatives [f, z, ʃ, x, ɣ] are found in loanwords only. Some speakers pronounce orthographic ‹v› in loanwords as [v]; otherwise it is [f].
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 The glottal stop [ʔ] is an allophone of /k/ and /ɡ/ in the coda: baik, bapak. It is also used between identical vowels in hiatus. Only a few words have this sound in the middle, e.g. bakso (meatballs) and rakyat (alternative word of 'people' or 'society'). It may be represented by an apostrophe in Arabic derived words such as Al Qur'an.
  4. ^ It is either an alveolar tap [ɾ] or trill [r] in Indonesian.
  5. ^ [ɑ] is an occasional allophone of /a/ after emphatic consonants from Arabic loanwords, example: qari [qɑri]. However, [ɑ] could also merged with /o/ as evidenced by nonstandard romanizations of Arabic: qori.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 The diphthongs /ai, au/, which only occur in open syllables, are often merged into [e, o], respectively, especially in Java.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 /e, i, o, u/ in Indonesian language have lax allophones [ɛ, ɪ, ɔ, ʊ] in closed final syllables, except that tense [i, u] occur in stressed syllables with a coda nasal, and lax [ɛ, ɔ] also occur in open syllables if the following syllable contains the same lax vowel. Allophones [ɪ, ʊ] sometimes merge with /e, o/.
  8. ^ The Indonesian /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of clay (for most English dialects) and the vowel of get. The Indonesian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  9. ^ The Indonesian /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of sole (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw. The Indonesian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  10. ^ Diphthongs are broken into vowel sequences in closed syllables (baik) and monosyllables (bau, tahu).
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 The pronunciation with the lax allophone [ɪ] or [ʊ] only occurs in Indonesian.
  12. ^ Stress generally falls on the penultimate syllable. If that syllable contains a schwa [ə], stress shifts to the antepenult if there is one, and to the final syllable if there is not. Some suffixes are ignored for stress placement.