Borrowed from Hebrew מִשְׁנָה (mišnāh, “repetition, oral law”), from שָׁנָה (šānāh, “to repeat, teach”). Related Aramaic "tana" ("repetition") and Arabic "sunnah" (repetition). Also Arabic "ithnani" ("pair"), Aramaic "tnai" ("pair"), Hebrew "shnaim" ("pair").
- The oldest part of the Talmud, rabbinical writings collected by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi and published in 250 C.E. in Javneh (יבנה, in Israel).
- The Mishna is believed by Jews to have been handed down orally from the patriarch-prophet Moses, who received it on Mount Sinai with the written Torah.
- the Oral Torah