Last modified on 12 June 2014, at 10:30

Module:gender and number

This module shows gender annotations, such as m or f pl. "Gender" is something of a misnomer, as the available annotation categories include animacy and verb aspect (though the former is sometimes also considered a part of word gender). It is used as part of other modules, or can be called from a template. The module is invoked with a list of one or more "gender specifications". A specification is a single, full "gender", and can be either a simple gender such as "m", a combination of gender and number like "m-p" or something else.

Gender specifications for Lua script writers

Every specification is a list of codes, given as a single string with the codes separated by hyphens. Each code is defined within the module itself, and when displaying a specification, each code in the specification is converted into the appropriate display form. The different codes within the specification are then added together, separated by spaces. If the module is given several specifications at once (in a list), then each item in the list is separated by a comma.


List Result
{"m"} m
{"m-p"} m pl
{"m-an-p"} m anim pl
{"f-d", "m-p"} f du, m pl
{"m-p", "f-p"} m pl, f pl
{"m", "f", "p"} m, f, pl

Specifications that begin with "c" (but not "c" itself) are treated specially. They are considered noun classes, and the part immediately after the "c" is simply treated as some kind of name for a noun class; usually this will be a number. Noun classes do not have sub-parts, so they will not contain hyphens. When more than one specification is given, they must all be noun classes, and they are displayed separated with a forward slash instead, and preceded by class.


List Result
{"c1"} class 1
{"c1", "c2"} class 1/2
{"c1a", "c2a"} class 1a/2a


The module can be used from another module by importing it and calling the exported format_list function. It requires one parameter, which must be a table of zero or more strings. It will then return a string containing the result. For example:

local gen = require("Module:gender and number")
local example1 = gen.format_list({"m"})
local example2 = gen.format_list({"m", "f"})
local example3 = gen.format_list({"m-p"})

It can also be invoked from a template. The function show_list is used for this. It works the same way as the format_list function, but the specifications are passed as parameters to the module invocation, like so:

*{{#invoke:gender and number|show_list|m}}
*{{#invoke:gender and number|show_list|m|f}}
*{{#invoke:gender and number|show_list|m-p}}
  • m
  • m, f
  • m pl

There is no limit to the number of parameters that can be given this way. The module will process all of its parameters until it finds one that is empty. This means that the following will display only "m" and not "m, n":

{{#invoke:gender and number|show_list|m||n}}

	This module creates standardised displays for gender and number.
	It converts a gender specification into Wiki/HTML format.
	A gender specification is a list of one of the elements listed below,
	separated by hyphens. Examples are: "c", "n", "f-p", "m-an-p"
local export = {}
local codes = {}
-- A list of all possible "parts" that a specification can be made out of.
codes["?"] = '<abbr title="gender incomplete">?</abbr>'
-- Genders
codes["m"] = '<abbr title="masculine gender">m</abbr>'
codes["f"] = '<abbr title="feminine gender">f</abbr>'
codes["n"] = '<abbr title="neuter gender">n</abbr>'
codes["c"] = '<abbr title="common gender">c</abbr>'
-- Additional qualifiers
codes["an"] = '<abbr title="animate">anim</abbr>'
codes["in"] = '<abbr title="inanimate">inan</abbr>'
codes["pr"] = '<abbr title="personal">pers</abbr>'
-- Numbers
codes["s"] = '<abbr title="singular number">sg</abbr>'
codes["d"] = '<abbr title="dual number">du</abbr>'
codes["p"] = '<abbr title="plural number">pl</abbr>'
-- Verb qualifiers
codes["impf"] = '<abbr title="imperfective aspect">impf</abbr>'
codes["pf"] = '<abbr title="perfective aspect">pf</abbr>'
-- Version of format_list that can be invoked from a template.
function export.show_list(frame)
	local args = frame.args
	local lang = args["lang"]; if lang == "" then lang = nil end
	local list = {}
	local i = 1
	while args[i] and args[i] ~= "" do
		table.insert(list, args[i])
		i = i + 1
	return export.format_list(list, lang)
-- Format one or more gender specifications, in the form of a table of specifications.
function export.format_list(list, lang)
	local is_nounclass = nil
	-- Iterate over each specification and format it
	for key, spec in ipairs(list) do
		local nc
		list[key], nc = export.format_specification(spec, lang)
		-- Ensure that the specifications are either all noun classes, or none are.
		if is_nounclass == nil then
			is_nounclass = nc
		elseif is_nounclass ~= nc then
			error("Noun classes and genders cannot be mixed. Please use either one or the other.")
	if is_nounclass then
		-- Add the processed codes together with slashes
		return "<span class=\"gender\">class " .. table.concat(list, "/") .. "</span>"
		-- Add the processed codes together with commas
		return "<span class=\"gender\">" .. table.concat(list, ", ") .. "</span>"
-- Format the sub-parts of a single gender specification.
function export.format_specification(spec, lang)
	local categories = ""
	local ret = ""
	local is_nounclass = false
	-- If the specification starts with cX, then it is a noun class specification.
	if spec:find("^[1-9]") or spec:find("^c[^-]") then
		is_nounclass = true
		code = spec:gsub("^c", "")
		if code == "?" then
			ret = "<abbr class=\"noun-class\" title=\"noun class missing\">?</abbr>"
			ret = "<abbr class=\"noun-class\" title=\"noun class " .. code .. "\">" .. code .. "</abbr>"
		-- Split the parts and iterate over each part, converting it into its display form
		local parts = mw.text.split(spec, "-")
		for key, code in ipairs(parts) do
			-- Is this code valid?
			if codes[code] then
				parts[key] = codes[code]
				error("The gender specification \"" .. spec .. "\" is not valid.")
		-- Add the processed codes together with non-breaking spaces
		ret = table.concat(parts, "&nbsp;")
	-- Do some additional checks if a language was given
	if lang then
		-- Is this an incomplete gender?
		if spec:find("?") then
			local m_utilities = require("Module:utilities")
			categories = m_utilities.format_categories({lang:getCanonicalName() .. " terms with incomplete gender"}, nil)
		-- Check if the specification is valid
		--elseif langinfo.genders then
		--	local valid_genders = {}
		--	for _, g in ipairs(langinfo.genders) do valid_genders[g] = true end
		--	if not valid_genders[spec] then
		--		local valid_string = {}
		--		for i, g in ipairs(langinfo.genders) do valid_string[i] = g end
		--		error("The gender specification \"" .. spec .. "\" is not valid for " .. langinfo.names[1] .. ". Valid are: " .. table.concat(valid_string, ", "))
		--	end
	return ret .. categories, is_nounclass
return export