This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Uncertain; possibly from *(s)neh₁- (to twist, turn)[1], or perhaps *(s)neh₂- (to swim)[2] +‎ *-tr̥.



  1. adder (type of snake)


Athematic, proterokinetic
singular collective
nominative *(s)néHtr̥ *(s)n̥Htṓr
genitive *(s)n̥Hténs *(s)n̥Htnés
singular dual plural collective
nominative *(s)néHtr̥ *(s)n̥Htṓr
vocative *(s)néHtr̥ *(s)n̥Htṓr
accusative *(s)néHtr̥ *(s)n̥Htṓr
genitive *(s)n̥Hténs *(s)n̥Htnés
ablative *(s)n̥Hténs *(s)n̥Htnés
dative *(s)n̥Hténey *(s)n̥Htnéy
locative *(s)n̥Htén, *(s)n̥Hténi *(s)n̥Htén, *(s)n̥Hténi
instrumental *(s)n̥Hténh₁ *(s)n̥Htnéh₁

Alternative reconstructionsEdit

Derived termsEdit

  • *(s)n̥H-tr-ó-s[6]
    • Germanic: *nadraz (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)n̥H-tr-íh₂[4]
    • Celtic: *natrī
      • Brythonic: *nėdr (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)n̥H-tr-ík-s, *(s)n̥H-tr-ék-s[4]
    • Celtic: *natrixs (see there for further descendants)
    • Italic: [Term?]
      • Latin: natrix (see there for further descendants)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Walde, Alois; Hofmann, Johann Baptist (1954) , “Proto-Indo-European/(s)néHtr̥”, in Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 2, 3rd edition, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, page 147
  2. 2.0 2.1 Holger Pedersen (1913) Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen (in German), volume II, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, →ISBN, page 45
  3. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) , “nē-tr . . ., nə-tr . . .”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 767
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1991) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 2), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, pages 169-170
  5. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 147: “*néh₁tr- ~ *nh₁tr-”
  6. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “nadra-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 381