This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European edit

Etymology edit

Limited to West Indo-European, which has led to some speculation of a substrate borrowing. Alternatively reconstructed as a vṛddhi derivative of a sḱ-present verb:

Noun edit


  1. (West Indo-European) fish
    Synonym: *dʰǵʰu- (eastern dialects, not including Albanian and Indo-Iranian)

Inflection edit

Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *péysks
genitive *piskés
singular dual plural
nominative *péysks *péyskh₁(e) *péyskes
vocative *péysk *péyskh₁(e) *péyskes
accusative *péyskm̥ *péyskh₁(e) *péyskm̥s
genitive *piskés *? *piskóHom
ablative *piskés *? *piskmós
dative *piskéy *? *piskmós
locative *péysk, *péyski *? *pisksú
instrumental *piskéh₁ *? *piskmís

Alternative reconstructions edit

Derived terms edit

  • *péysk-o-s[6][5]
    • Proto-Celtic: *ɸēskos (see there for further descendants)
  • *pisk-í-s[5]
    • Proto-Italic: *piskis[8]
      • Latin: piscis (see there for further descendants)
        • Albanian: peshk
        • Proto-Brythonic: *pɨsk (see there for further descendants)
  • *pisk-ó-s[6][5]
    • Proto-Germanic: *fiskaz (see there for further descendants)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 The template Template:R:TOitPIEatPIEw does not use the parameter(s):
    Please see Module:checkparams for help with this warning.
    Mallory, J. P., Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 146:*pik̂sk̂os ‘fish’ […] The Indic cognate is semantically far removed but is commonly justifed[sic] on the widespread folk association of the calf of the leg with the belly of a fish filled with roe.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Wolfgang Pfeifer, editor (1993), “Fisch”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Deutschen (in German), 2nd edition, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN:ie. *peitsk-, *pitsk-
  3. 3.0 3.1 Seebold, Elmar (1970) “Fisch”, in Vergleichendes und etymologisches Wörterbuch der germanischen starken Verben (Janua Linguarum. Series practica; 85) (in German), Paris, Den Haag: Mouton, →ISBN, page 216:*peits-ko-
  4. ^ Fick, August (1890–1909) “pisk”, in Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen (in German), 4th edition, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, page 482
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Kroonen, Guus (2013) “*fiska-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 142:*pisk-o-; *pisk-i-; *peisk-o-
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Pokorny, Julius (1959) “peisk-, pisk-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 796:*piskos; *peiskos
  7. ^ Kölligan, Daniel (2017–2018) “Chapter XX: Proto-Indo-European”, in Klein, Jared S., Joseph, Brian D., Fritz, Matthias, editors, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The lexicon of Proto-Indo-European, page 2241:*pei̯sk-
  8. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “piscis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page PIt. *piski-; PIE *pisk-; *peisko-; *pisko- of 467-468