This Proto-Kartvelian entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Ačaṙyan derives from Armenian: compare Middle Armenian բարտի (barti, poplar), Armenian բարդի (bardi, poplar), but this is denied by Klimov.

On the other hand, Starostin remarks that if the primary meaning is ‘stick’, a comparison with Proto-Northeast Caucasian *bVrVdV (stick; axe) is attractive. He considers the latter to be an Iranian borrowing. He adds that the influence of another Iranian root, namely *varda- (rose), whence also Old Armenian վարդ (vard), is also possible.



  1. undergrowth, brush, bushes


  • Georgian-Zan:
    • Georgian: ბარდი (bardi, undergrowth, brush, bushes)
    • Mingrelian: ბურდი (burdi, undergrowth, brush, bushes)
  • Svan: ბა̈რდ (bärd, stalk, stem of a plant, undergrowth)
  • Abkhaz: а-бард (ā-bārd, thorny undergrowth, brush, bushes)


  • Klimov, G. A. (1998) Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages (Trends in linguistics. Documentation; 16), New York, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, page 8
  • Penrixi (Fähnrich), Hainc; Sarǯvelaʒe, Zurab (2000) kartvelur enata eṭimologiuri leksiḳoni [Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages] (in Georgian), Tbilisi: Tbilisi Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani State University Press, page 95
  • Fähnrich, Heinz (2007) Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary] (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.18) (in German), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 50
  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971), “բարտի”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume I, 2nd edition, reprint of the original 1926–1935 seven-volume edition, Yerevan: University Press, page 430b
  • Starostin, S. A. (2005), “*bard”, in Kartvelian etymological database compiled on the basis of G. Klimov's and Fähnrich-Sarjveladze's etymological dictionaries of Kartvelian languages