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Irregular verbs


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Seven principal parts

Paradigm for most irregular verbs (7 principal parts)
Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Imperative
Present Simple past Imperfect Future Present Imperfect Present Present
je 1S+s PAST+s 1P+ais FUT+ai 3P+e PAST+sse FUT+ais
tu FUT+as 3P+es PAST+sses (same as pres. indic. 3rd. sg. if ends with vowel, else 2nd. sg.)
il/elle 1S+t1 PAST+t 1P+ait FUT+a 3P+e PAST+ˆt FUT+ait
nous 1P+ons PAST+ˆmes 1P+ions FUT+ons 1P+ions PAST+ssions FUT+ions (same as pres. indic. 1st pl.)
vous 1P+ez PAST+ˆtes 1P+iez FUT+ez 1P+iez PAST+ssiez FUT+iez (same as pres. indic. 2nd pl.)
ils/elles 3P+ent PAST+rent 1P+aient FUT+ont 3P+ent PAST+ssent FUT+aient

1 The -t is regularly dropped when directly following a d or t (e.g. il vend "he sells", not *il vendt).

Non-finite forms:

  • Infinitive: (full infinitive, with suffix)
  • Present participle: 1P-ant
  • Gerundive: en 1P-ant
  • Verbal adjective: 1P-ant(e)(s)
  • Past participle: PP(e)(s)

The following table gives principal parts for a number of irregular verbs. There are a number of fair-sized groups of verbs that are conjugated alike; these are listed first. There are some additional irregularities in the present indicative, which are listed below. Nearly all irregularities affect the singular, and are purely issues of spelling. (Stems that are irregular in the sense of being unpredictable by the above rules are given in boldface.)

Table of principal parts of irregular (and -ir) French verbs (7 principal parts)
INF: Infinitive Meaning FUT: Future Present Indicative PP: Past Participle PAST: Simple Past Notes Similar verbs
1S: 1st Sing (2nd Sing, 3rd Sing) 1P: 1st Plur (2nd Plur) 3P: 3rd Plur
chois-ir "to choose" choisir-ai choisi-s choisiss-ons choisiss-ent choisi choisi-s How a regular -ir verb would be represented by its principal parts About 300 verbs in -ir
haïr "to hate" haïr-ai hai-s / haï-s1 haïss-ons haïss-ent haï haï-s The same as a regular -ir verb but in Sing. pres. indic. the diaeresis drops out
part-ir "to leave" partir-ai par-s part-ons part-ent parti parti-s Sing. pres. indic. stem drops last consonant of basic stem: je pars, dors, mens, sens, sers, sors /ʒ(ə) paʁ, dɔʁ, mɑ̃, sɔʁ, sɑ̃, sɛʁ/ se départir "divest", repartir "leave again", dormir "sleep", s'endormir "fall asleep", se rendormir "fall back asleep", mentir "lie (tell lies)", démentir "contradict", sentir "feel", consentir "agree", pressentir "foresee", ressentir "feel", servir "serve", desservir "clear away", resservir "serve again", sortir "go out", ressortir "come back"
vêt-ir "to dress" vêtir-ai vêt-s, vêt2 vêt-ons vêt-ent vêtu vêti-s The same as partir, except for the past participle dévêtir "undress", revêtir "cover"
requér-ir "to require, demand" requerr-ai requier-s requér-ons requièr-ent requis requi-s
ven-ir "to come" viendr-ai vien-s ven-ons vienn-ent venu vin-s Note simple past plural vînmes, vîntes, vinrent /vɛ̃m, vɛ̃t, vɛ̃ʁ/ revenir "return", devenir "become", se souvenir "remember", parvenir "reach", prévenir "tell beforehand"; tenir "hold", retenir "memorize", contretenir "talk", soutenir "sustain", maintenir "maintain", appartenir "belong", etc.
mour-ir "to die" mourr-ai meur-s mour-ons meur-ent mort mouru-s
cour-ir "to run" courr-ai cour-s cour-ons cour-ent couru couru-s
ouvr-ir "to open" ouvrir-ai ouvr-e, ouvr-es, ouvr-e ouvr-ons ouvr-ent ouvert ouvri-s Sing. pres. indic. uses endings -e -es -e, as with -er verbs couvrir "cover", découvrir "discover", offrir "offer", souffrir "suffer"
cueill-ir "to gather" cueiller-ai cueill-e, cueill-es, cueill-e cueill-ons cueill-ent cueilli cueilli-s Like ouvrir except the future; sing. pres. indic. uses endings -e -es -e, as with -er verbs
asseoir "to sit" assiér-ai; assoir-ai assied-s, assied;2 assoi-s assey-ons; assoy-ons assey-ent; assoi-ent assis assi-s Notice that there are two sets of conjugations.
envoy-er "to send" enverr-ai envoi-e3 envoy-ons3 envoi-ent3 envoyé envoy-ai 1st group verb renvoyer "resend"
voir "to see" verr-ai voi-s voy-ons voi-ent3 vu vi-s revoir "see again"
recev-oir "to receive" recevr-ai reçoi-s recev-ons reçoiv-ent reçu reçu-s Other verbs in -cevoir, e.g. apercevoir "perceive", concevoir "conceive", décevoir "disappoint"
dev-oir "to owe, must" devr-ai doi-s dev-ons doiv-ent du-s Very similar to recevoir, but adds a circumflex to du to distinguish it from the partitive article du - due, dus and dues remain unchanged
mouv-oir "to move" mouvr-ai meu-s mouv-ons meuv-ent mu-s Adds a circumflex to mu to distinguish it from the Greek letter mu (μ) - mue, mus and mues remain unchanged
émouv-oir "to move, affect" émouvr-ai émeu-s émouv-ons émeuv-ent ému ému-s promouvoir "promote"
choir "to fall" choir-ai; cherr-ai choi-s choy-ons choi-ent3 chu chu-s Missing the indicative imperfect and the subjunctive mood (except by chût, in singular 3rd person imperfect subjunctive) échoir "befall"
pleuv-oir "to rain" pleuvr-a pleu-t (stem pleuv-) (stem pleuv-) plu plu-t Impersonal (3rd-singular only)
vend-re "to sell" vendr-ai vend-s, vend2 vend-ons vend-ent vendu vendi-s So-called "regular -re" verbs; all end in -dre, but not -indre attendre "wait", défendre "defend", descendre "go down", entendre "hear", étendre "extend", fondre "melt", pendre "hang", perdre "lose", prétendre "pretend", rendre "return, give back", répandre "spill", répondre "respond", etc.
batt-re "to beat" battr-ai bat-s, bat2 batt-ons batt-ent battu batti-s Close to vendre
romp-re "to break" rompr-ai romp-s romp-ons romp-ent rompu rompi-s Very close to vendre
vainc-re "to conquer" vaincr-ai vainc-s, vainc vainqu-ons vainqu-ent vaincu vainqui-s Essentially same as vendre, except for c/qu variation convaincre "convince"
craind-re "to fear" craindr-ai crain-s craign-ons craign-ent craint craign-is All verbs in -aindre, -eindre, -oindre, e.g. contraindre "compel", plaindre "complain"; atteindre "reach", ceindre "gird", empreindre "stamp", éteindre "turn off", étreindre "hug", feindre "pretend", geindre "whine", peindre "paint", restreindre "restrict", teindre "dye"; joindre "join", oindre "anoint", poindre "dawn", rejoindre "rejoin"
condui-re "to lead" conduir-ai condui-s conduis-ons conduis-ent conduit conduisi-s All verbs in -uire e.g. construire "build", cuire "cook", détruire "destroy", instruire "instruct", réduire "reduce", produire "produce", traduire "translate", etc.
trai-re "to milk" trair-ai trai-s tray-ons3 trai-ent3 trai-t tray-ai PS is conjugated as in 1st group verbs. contraire "contract", extraire "extract", soustraire "subtract", retraire "withdraw"
prend-re "to take" prendr-ai prend-s, prend2 pren-ons prenn-ent pris pri-s comprendre "understand", apprendre "study", reprendre "take again", etc.
mett-re "to put" mettr-ai met-s, met2 mett-ons mett-ent mis mi-s promettre "promise", permettre "permit", compromettre "compromise, damage", soumettre "submit, subdue", transmettre "transmit"
écri-re "to write" écrir-ai écri-s écriv-ons écriv-ent écrit écrivi-s décrire "describe", inscrire "inscribe"
boi-re "to drink" boir-ai boi-s buv-ons boiv-ent bu bu-s
di-re "to say, tell" dir-ai di-s dis-ons, dites dis-ent dit di-s Note the 2nd pl. dites contredire "contradict", interdire "forbid"
li-re "to read" lir-ai li-s lis-ons lis-ent lu lu-s
suffi-re "to suffice" suffir-ai suffi-s suffis-ons suffis-ent suffi suffi-s confire "pickle", circoncire "circumcise", frire "fry"
plai-re "to please" plair-ai plai-s, plaît plais-ons plais-ent plu plu-s Note the 3rd sg. plaît
croi-re "to believe" croir-ai croi-s croy-ons3 croi-ent3 cru cru-s
brui-re "to make a low noise" bruir-ai brui-t (stem bruiss-) bruiss-ent brui brui-t Rare outside of third person, conjugated like choisir (regular -ir verbs)
maudi-re "to curse" maudir-ai maudi-t maudiss-ons maudiss-ent maudit maudi-t Very close to bruire
ri-re "to laugh" rir-ai ri-s ri-ons ri-ent ri ri-s sourire "smile"
conclu-re "to conclude" conclur-ai conclu-s conclu-ons conclu-ent conclu conclu-s Other verbs in -clure
viv-re "to live" vivr-ai vi-s viv-ons viv-ent vécu vécu-s revivre "come alive again", survivre "survive"
suiv-re "to follow" suivr-ai sui-s suiv-ons suiv-ent suivi suivi-s poursuivre "pursue"
connaît-re "to know" connaîtr-ai connai-s, connaît connaiss-ons connaiss-ent connu connu-s Note the 3rd sg. connaît reconnaître "recognize", paraître "seem", apparaître "appear", reparaître "reappear", disparaître "disappear"
naît-re "to be born" naîtr-ai nai-s, naît naiss-ons naiss-ent naqui-s Note the 3rd sg. naît
coud-re "to sew" coudr-ai coud-s, coud2 cous-ons cous-ent cousu cousi-s
moud-re "to grind, mill" moudr-ai moud-s, moud2 moul-ons moul-ent moulu moulu-s
résoud-re "to solve, resolve" résoudr-ai résou-s résolv-ons résolv-ent résolu résolu-s
absoud-re "to solve, absolve" absoudr-ai absou-s absolv-ons absolv-ent absous, absoute absolu-s The same as résoudre, except for the past participle. Note the masculine absous and feminine absoute
clo-re "to close" clor-ai clo-s, clôt clos-ons clos-ent clos (missing) Missing the subjunctive and indicative imperfect, as well as the simple past tens. Note the 3rd sg. clôt

1 Only in Quebec French

2 The ending -t is regularly dropped when directly following a d or t (e.g. il vend "he sells", not *il vendt).

3 Alternation of "-ai-" and -oi- before consonant or unstressed e, "-ay-" and -oy- before other vowels is automatic in all verbs.

The following table shows an example paradigm of one of these verbs, recevoir "to receive".

Recevoir "to receive"
Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Imperative
Present Simple Past Imperfect Future Present Imperfect Present Present
je reçois
tu recevras
il/elle reçoit
nous recevons
vous recevez
ils/elles reçoivent

Non-finite forms:

  • Infinitive: recevoir
  • Present participle: recevant
  • Gerundive: en recevant
  • Verbal adjective: recevant(e)(s)
  • Past participle: reçu(e)(s)

Chuvash declension in IPA

Back Front
Consonant Reduced vowel Vowel Consonant Reduced vowel Vowel
[arˈman] [armanˈzʲemʲ] [ˈpul] [pulˈzʲemʲ] [laˈʒa] [laʒaˈzʲemʲ] [ˈtʲirʲ] [tʲirʲˈzʲemʲ] [ˈkʲyl] [ˈkʲylzʲemʲ] [ˈɲe] [ˈɲezʲemʲ]