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Lascaux Cave in France
Lascaux Cave in France



Chinese has changed very rapidly, yet Icelandic very slowly. Prehistoric humans lived in very small, isolated groups. The extrapolation tells us that before the Mesolithic, language would have changed very slowly. Therefore, we should be able to reconstruct. We might want to find the original language (Njur Dngwe) for (a(n)):

  • Esperanto-like language with worldwide basis
  • Deciphering unknown languages for practical purposes and their etymology for entertainment and implied meaning
  • Borrowing new vocabulary more naturally


*(é)ɲa~(é)g(h)a, -i, -e (-na) (short form ja)=I/me


>Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/ŋa-j ~ ka




*ga, -i, -e (-na)=1st person familiar, in plural inclusive, left in Austronesian (starting with k there) to distinguish above 2nd person from below demonstrative

*sa, -i, -e (-na)=this, to this; *sou, swi, swe=one(self), to one(self) (where the -ou is a dative turned adjectival suffix)

*ta, -i, -e (-na)=that, to that (many forms were modified or replaced with the corresponding form of *sa>*só in PIE due to the similarity with 2nd person)

>*tou, twi, twe=thee; to thee

*ła, -i, -e (-na)= general demonstrative or third person

lower pronouns + possessive pronoun=that which is that person's/thing's (noun or adjective)


t'ég(n)i=that which is mine=Austronesian taku

soti/sati/seti=this which belongs to that

łoki/łaki/łeki=it which is yours

Compare also il mio


  • d(j)=of, from
  • s=under, from (vertical)
  • spur=on
  • n=in
  • anā=on, for, to
  • me=with


i:na=one; derived from (kj)i:+-na (of singular); derived meaning "being"

s(i)nh=single, only, one

Could (OC *sn̥ʰiːn)=Proto-Human *s(i)nh-(gj)i:-n=Proto-Indo-European *sem-i:-nos (single-plural-past participle)- "singlesed"; see semantically similar unit.

P.S. *s(i)nh-(gj)i:-n (a unit/a thousand) probably sounded just like singin'!

du (-s, a(r))=two

tlets, sa:mt=3






dka>dsa=9 or 10 (varies by language)



*-ts=a majoritative or totalitive plural suffix (possibly "thatthis")

*(k)ji:=a dative (and therefore partial plural) suffix

See alternate pronunciations like /(g)ji:/ and their cognates at 的#Chinese

Also see -i: in Proto-Indo-European or descendants

*-na=singular nominal suffix, compare Reconstruction:Proto-Uralic/minä, okina and -na in various Native American languages (see -na#Quechua, -na#Taos).

*-a=prepositional nominal suffix; indicated/indicates that the noun is part of the prepositional phrase, also a group plural suffix

*-ou=dative and noun forming suffix

*-(u)s=subjective nominative

*-(u)m=objective nominative

Other RootsEdit

  • pōl, pūl=to pound or chop, apply brute force (couper)
  • kom-=with, to join, to enter
  • laeq=to lie down; untruth; lake
  • sjat=now, time
  • kul=hollow, hole, lake, canyon
  • temjen=to have, (take) hold
  • tēmjen=to make somebody take
  • temćen (=temt+jen)=lit. to be taken hold of- to be contaminated
  • tēmćen=to contaminate



sjen<sedjen (to sit), hwedsjen (?)=to be

For last one, see Austronesian Reconstruction:Proto-Malayo-Polynesian/wada, English was

(N)ja s(j)ang/sedeng/hwedseng, -m=I am

en=dark; inside

fale=meal; fare


mele=sweet; honey

melou, oumele=melody (lit. of honey)

(h)uljobfa=love (see ljubv (lewbh)->li:b(v) in Indo-European and aloha); l did not change to r due to the following j so the PIE people removed the initial vowel (this was a word itself by this time)


(h)aljo=masc. form of area ((h)alja)




bvua~fua=flower, flourishing

but this could just as easily describe a congenial environment...

qur=run, way

bjess=without, don't

m(j)a=eye, see, vision (especially in Asia; see mata, ). Also, compare etymology of immaculate.

pehne~pane>fane=slice, sheet (see fani, pan)


pāt- (pāćen)=to fall or to crash (fig. to die)

hejre=here, to come

bo:l=to hurt, but also good; originally enough? (see Kazakh, SHR "bol")

gna/ta:k=to know

Note on past tenses: *gnat means to be known; have known; whereas *ta:kt(e)t means taught


wa=departure/movement related

waðir=water (self-evident)


ter(g)/ten(g)=to extend


Possibly: tango#Latin

*gat (?), *ko=to cut meat; to maim

割 OC ka:d English gash and cut, Hawaiian okina

*(g)wr(l)~(k)wr(l)=to bend/turn

*note: this root may have experienced irregular sound changes due to repeated borrowing between similar sounding descendants with/without an initial plosive.

>𒄥 (gur)>kere#Turkish

> (OC: /*ɡʷroːlʔ/)

>(?) curl

>circle, Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)ker-



>د_و_ر#Arabic (=d-(g)-w-r?)

*mag=make (up)

*mwejn~moen=mind (singular), dream>sleep (plural)



*m(V)w(r)(t)=to drain, deplete; derived meanings: death, bite (to drain blood?), sea (to which water drains)

>moana (mow-(e/a)-na)


>mare, more, Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/móri



*mVn=to tower, mountain


>*maunte~monte/maunse~monse=mountain (that/this which towers)

*m(a)eɲ, m(a)eg(n)=power(ful), great(ness), energy, the Force, (rarely) attract(ion) (could also belong to below roots?)



>募#Chinese (?)


>Proto-Indo-European mey(n)-

>magnet (?)

>me-ne (not powerful, not great, small)

>>Proto-Indo-European meyn-

*men=to remain


>man, (Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/r-mi(j)-n) (survivor, but could equally likely be from the above root)







*degva=burn, sun, day


Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/s-nəj, also rlʻa or rlaa, see ra in Egyptian or Polynesian

Similarly, *snu:jgva=snow

ghina=woman, female

gher=bereaved; heir

(d)njuj>rij (in many languages)=language


*lamn=to shine

*lamn-(kj)i:(-t/s)=that/this which shines (which has shine) Reconstruction:Proto-Austronesian/laŋiC

*lag(h)=lie; falsehood

*qer(sn)a=black; dark


*bveh~feh=to shine, to appear

*bvenu~fenu=material, physical, fig. homeland: see pheno-, Reconstruction:Proto-Austronesian/banua

*h(ə)rík(t)=rule, moral, king, poetic meter: see rex#Latin, ariki,


ɲ~m(n)~g(n) in Proto-Language (see 1st person pronoun and word for power in previous section)

ll to ɲ before front vowels

t, dh>d>n in Proto-Sino-Tibetan; see:

Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/na-ŋ=*ta, tou, ti

那#Chinese and cognates=*to/ta

Proto-Sino-Tibetan (s-)n(r)əj=*dhegwʻ (see day, Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/dʰegʷʰ-)

男#Chinese and cognates=*tahane, tàne (compare Polynesian tāne)

d>t(>d/t) in Sino-Tibetan

打#Chinese (OC: *teː(ŋʔ))=Proto-Human *de, -a=*deh₃, da, do (Western word for to, to give: to as a verb can also mean to meet, this meaning gave rise to the current Chinese meaning)

的#Chinese, 之#Chinese, 者#Chinese (OC: *t(j)ɯ, -aːʔ, ="Proto-Human" *d(j)', d(j)e, d(j)a=Proto-Indo-European de, do, possibly related to above (adverbal form of to?). Also compare Reconstruction:Proto-Japonic/nə.

From the above patterns, we see that PST and PIE are reversed in terms of labials/plosives in respect to each other, but modern Chinese usually aligns with PIE due to another reversal. Possibly, there were also different divisions of labial/plosive distinction.

Proto-Human a >a>o: in PIE, >a in Proto-Sino-Tibetan (aː>ə or similar in Chinese), omitted in Uralic

See pronouns at top of page and possessive above.

过 (/*kloːl/~/*kwo:l/)=Proto-Human gwro:(-ss) and a very similar PIE root (through)

阔=PH kw(h)ro:(-ss) (wide)

But these two could easily be reversed, or one could be the origin of the other as they sound so similar: see go wide.

e/i reversal and ng>mn before front vowels and at ends of words in Proto-"Mitian" (Arctic to Temperate Language Group around the Northern Hemisphere) and further ja>a and mn>m in PIE around the time of the division of the Corded Ware culture as evidence by such words as mnom

i/e reversal, and o/a reversal in Latin.

e/a reversal in Proto-Austronesian

w/l>r in PIE

r>l in PIE

o and u reversal in PIE

Denasalisation of short nasals in Proto-Austronesian


Te dyngwas/dyngwan/dyngwi Language

Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s 語#Chinese [[2]] reo

Ta Maeníja sedt me (é)gnas

"The Force is with us." *Note maegn-ja spontaneously turns to maeníja

Sedí/s(j)í ka tok inem ininm s inea pālía, kvukme wite iteōt ła n 5 dusaemía?

If you through something (one in [many]) off a cliff, how fast will it be going in 5 seconds [calque]?

D prids 49 m/s. About 49 m/s.

Ta dhirre-thilija=the horizon (lit. the earth's end)

Komē/haerlē keume=come (imperative)

Ko'e/haerlē ko=go (imperative)

Kom(g)na(g)najen=to know somebody really well (lit. to together know know)

Mw(r)te bitо̄lós kerde, snwj(i)gva pālо̄lół (h)anā sgajea degvā.

This heart would be dead, snow would fall on a summer/sunny day. (One would be very sad)

N moenía mwoled-est-ía tía

In your wildest dreams (lit. in dreams woodest thine)

Kwukme itantou tij?

How are you doing (lit. going)

Dja si tātlo sedćen

To have taught oneself (lit. to to oneself the teacher be)

Panorat (Pano-ra-t(a))

He sails again and again (in one word!)

Tij/Tou Hurikist!

You rule!

Sidt uje ina baunga sjuta dja pajan kvu moenist.

It's always a good time to do what you dream.

Itē gwundo/a ul ud kaucā.

Go big or (go) home.

Nja truvalomn jalse tijuví deyí ud rara lebrīa salpea?!

Did I find your HW behind the bookshelf again?!

Ło kítlo sidt sebim din.

He did himself in.

Ta kánća n krdea ne puruje mwrtet.

The song in the heart never dies.

Utwrte tem duajrem.

Open the door.

Mwúdi Mydsa

Poker Face (Wooden Mood)