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User:Sobreira/PIE-appendices

< User:Sobreira

The following is a list of Proto-Indo-European roots, given with their basic meaning and notable cognates in Indo-European languages. Note that there is some debate among scholars on whether certain roots belong to PIE or not.

Note that only roots are listed here; see Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European nouns for nominal stems. See also w:Proto-Indo-European pronoun, w:Proto-Indo-European particle and w:Proto-Indo-European numerals.

Languages with abbreviationsEdit

ReferencesEdit

RootsEdit

bEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*bak- staff Ancient Greek βάκτρον (báktron); Latin baculum; Old Irish bacc; Irish bac; Welsh bach; English peg; Lithuanian bàkstelėti; Latvian bakstīt
*bel- power, strength Sanskrit बल (bála); Ancient Greek βελτίων (beltíōn); Old Irish adbal, balc; Irish dibeal, bailc; Welsh balch; Russian большой (bolʹšoj); Kamviri [script needed] (bâlim); Phrygian [script needed] (balaios), [script needed] (balén); Low German pal; Old Church Slavonic болии (bolii); Latin dēbilis
*ben- enclosure
*bew- to kiss

Edit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*bʰabʰ- bean Gm. Bohne, Eng. bean, Lat. faba, Russ. боб (bob);
*bʰad- good Eng. better best,Du. baat, Skr. भद्र (bhadra)
*bʰaǵʰ- forearm, leg Eng. bōg, Av. bāzu, Skr. बाहु (bāhu)
*bʰars- barley Eng. barley, Welsh bara (bread), Lat. far (spelt), Serbo-Croatian бра̏шно/brȁšno, Albanian bar (grass), Ancient Greek Φήρον (Phḗron, plant deity)
*bʰask- bundle Eng. basket bast, Lat. fascis, Gk. φάκελος (phákelos),
*bʰedʰ- to dig, pierce, hole Eng. bed, Lat. fodio, Welsh bedd,
*bʰegʷ- to flee
*bʰeh₂- to shine
*bʰeh₂- to speak
*bʰeh₂g- to divide, distribute
*bʰeh₃g- to bake, roast
*bʰel- light, bright Gaul. Belenos, Lith. balnas; baltas, Ltv. balts, Skr. भर्ग (bharga); भाल (bhāla), Phryg. falos, Alb. bal,balosh, Illyr. balta, Arm. բալ (bal), բիլ (bil), Gk. φλέγω (phlégō); φαλός (phalós), ON bāl; blár; bleikr, Russ. белый (belyj), Polish biały, Eng. bǣl/balefire; bald, Gm. belihha/bleich; blāo/blau, Goth. bala, Ir. béal/; ball/; blár/, Welsh bal; blawr, Thrac. balios, Old Prussian ballo, Lat. fulica; flāvus; fulgeō, Oscan Flagiúi; Flaviies, Toch. pälk/pälk
*bʰel- to bloom Lat. folium; flōs, Gk. φύλλον (phúllon), Eng. blōstm/blossom, Ir. bláth, Gm. bluomo/Blume, ON blómi, Toch. pält/pilta, MWelsh blawd, Goth. blōma, Oscan Fluusaí, Alb. bulë; bilonjë
*bʰenǵʰ- thick Gm. bungo/Bunge, Ltv. bìezs, Toch. B pkante, Hitt. panku, Gk. παχύς (pakhús)/, Skr. बहु (bahú), Av. bązah, ON bingr
*bʰer- brown, shining Ltv. bērs; bebrs, Lith. bėras; bebras, Old Prussian bebrus, Gaul. Bibrax, Welsh befer, Eng. brūn/brown; bera/bear; beofer/beaver, Gm. brūn/braun; bero/Bär; bibar/Biber, ON brúnn; bjǫrn; bjórr, Skr. भाति (bhāti), Av. bawra, Lat. fiber, Russ. бобр (bobr), Toch. parno/perne; parä/perne
*bʰer- to bear / carry Skr. भरति (bharati), Av. baraiti, Russ. брать (bratʹ), Ir. berid/beir, Welsh cymmeryd, Arm. բերեմ (berem), Alb. bie; mbart, Gk. φέρω (phérō), Lat. ferō, Umbrian fertu, Eng. beran/bear, Gm. burde/Burde, Toch. pär/pär, Lith. berti, Ltv. bērt, Kamviri bor, Phryg. ber, Goth. 𐌱𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌰𐌽 (bairan), ON bera, OCS бьрати (bĭrati), Pers. baratuv/bār, Polish brać, Hitt. kapirt
*bʰer- to boil Alb. brumë, Gaul. Voberā, OIr. bréo; bruth; berbaim, Welsh brwd; brewi, Eng. brǣþ/breath; /broth; /brew; beorm/, Gm. brādam/Brodem; braten, ON bráðr, Gk. φύρδην μίγδην (phúrdēn mígdēn); phréār; porphurein, Lat. fervēo; fermentum; dēfrutum, Skr. भुरति (bhurati); bhurnih
*bʰerǵʰ- high, fort Russ. бе́рег (béreg), Eng. burg/borough, Arm. բարձր (barjr), Skr. बर्हयति (barhayati), Av. bərəz(ant), Gaul. Bergusia, Gm. berg/Burg, Hitt. parku; en-park, Toch. pärk/pärk, Thrac. Berga, Goth. baírgahī, ON bjarg; borg, Pers. burj, MIr. brí, Illyr. Berginium, Gk. πύργος (púrgos), Welsh bre; bera, Lyc. prije; pruwa, Lat. fortis, Alb. breg
*bʰerǵʰ- to hide, protect OCS brĕgą Russ. бере́чь (beréčʹ), Eng. byrġan/bury, ON bjarga, Goth. bairgan, Gm. bergan/bergen
*bʰewd- to strike, hit
*bʰewdʰ- to wake, rise up Skr. बोधति (bódhati); बुद्ध (buddha), Lith. budinti, Ltv. budīt, Old Prussian budē, Av. buiðyeiti, Ir. buide/buidhe, Welsh bodd, ON bjóða; boð, Gk. πυνθάνομαι (punthánomai), Eng. bēodan/bid; bodian/bode, Kamviri bidi, Russ. буди́ть (budítʹ), Polish budzić, OCS блюсти (bljusti), Gm. biotan/bieten; gibot/Gebot, Goth. 𐌰𐌽𐌰𐌱𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐌽 (anabiudan), Pers. /bēdār-šudan
*bʰewg- to flee
*bʰewgʰ- to bend
*bʰey- bee Eng. bēo/bee, Lith. bitė, Ltv. bite, Ir. bech/bech, Russ. пчела́ (pčelá), Gm. bīa/Biene, Polish pszczoła, Old Prussian bitte, Welsh begegyr, Gaul. bekos, ON bý, OCS бъчєла (bŭčela), Lat. fūcus
*bʰeyd- to bite, split
*bʰeydʰ- to trust, have faith
*bʰuH- to appear, become, rise up Skr. भू (bhū́); भवति (bhávati), Lith. būti, Ltv. būt, Old Prussian būton, Russ. быть (bytʹ), Ir. buith/beith, Eng. bēon/be, Gm. bim/bin, Kamviri bu, Polish być, Welsh bod, Gk. φύομαι (phúomai), Oscan fiiet, Umbrian fust, Pers. būmī/bum, Av. bavaiti, Alb. buj, Arm. բոյս (boys), Illyr. Bumi, Thrac. Kasibounon, Goth. 𐌱𐌰𐌿𐌰𐌽 (bauan), Gaul. Vindobios, Toch. pyotk/pyautk, ON búa, OCS бꙑти (byti), Lat. fuī
*bʰleh₁- to bleat Alb. blegëras, Lith. bliauti, Ltv. blēt, Eng. blǣtan/bleat, Gk. βελάζο (belázo), Russ. бле́ять (bléjatʹ), Lat. fleō
*bʰleh₃- yellow, blond, light blue
*bʰleh₃- blossom
*bʰleyǵ- to shine Ltv. bližģēt, Lith. blaikštytis, Eng. blīcan/bleach, Gm. blīhhan/Blech, ON blíkja, Russ. блеск (blesk), OCS блискъ (bliskŭ), Lat. fulgēo; flagro, MIr blicht; imblissiu, Skt bhrájati; bharga, Toch. pälk/; polkāṃts/
*bʰred- to wade Alb. bredh, Ltv. brist; bridu, Lith. bristi; bredu, Russ. брести́ (brestí), Polish brnąć, Thrac. Bredai
*bʰren- to project
*bʰruH- beam, bridge Gaul. brīva, Eng. brycg/bridge, Gm. brugga/Brücke, ON brú, Russ. бревно́ (brevnó), Polish birzwno, OCS брьвьно (brĭvĭno)
*bʰruH- brow Skr. भ्रू (bhrū), Lith. bruvis, Ir. brú/brúad/bruach, Eng. brū/brow, Russ. бровь (brovʹ), XMK abroútes, Gk. ὀφρύς (ophrús), Gm. /Braue, Toch. pärwāṃ/pärwāne, Lithbruvìs, Old Prussian wubri, Polish brew, OCS брьвьми (brĭvĭmi), ON brún, Avest. brvat, Pers. /ابرو (abru)

dEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*deh₁- to bind Albanian duaj; Ancient Greek δέω (déō); Sanskrit द्यति (dyáti); Avestan 𐬥𐬍𐬛𐬌𐬌𐬁𐬙𐬄𐬨 (nīdiiātąm)
*deh₃- to give Russian дать (datʹ); Old Armenian տամ (tam); Lithuanian dúoti; Latvian dot, deva; Sanskrit ददाति (dádāti); Avestan 𐬛𐬀𐬛𐬁𐬌𐬙𐬌 (dadāiti); Ossetian дæттын (dættyn); Albanian dhashë; Ancient Greek δίδωμι (dídōmi); Kashmiri [script needed] (dẏyūn); Polish dać; Phrygian [script needed] (dadón); Old Prussian dātwei; Latin ; Oscan [script needed] (dede); Umbrian [script needed] (dadad); Irish dán; Welsh dawn; Hittite [script needed] (); Lycian [script needed] (da); Luwian [script needed] (da-); Lydian [script needed] (da-); Gaulish doenti; Old Church Slavonic дати (dati); Old Persian 𐎭𐎭𐎠𐎬𐎺 (dadātuv); Persian دادَن (dādan)
*demh₂- to domesticate; tame Sanskrit दाम्यति (dāmyati); Ancient Greek δαμνάω (damnáō); Old Irish damnaid; Hittite [script needed] (damaašzi); Avestan 𐬛𐬀𐬨 (dam); Latin domō; Old English tam; English tame; Old High German zemmen; German zähmen; Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐍄𐌰𐌼𐌾𐌰𐌽 (gatamjan); Old Norse temja; Ossetian домын (domyn); Persian دام (dām); Welsh addef
*dewk- to lead Albanian nduk; Old English togian; English tow; Old High German ziohan; German ziehen; Gothic 𐍄𐌹𐌿𐌷𐌰𐌽 (tiuhan); Old Norse toginn; Ancient Greek ἀδευκής (adeukḗs); Latin dūcō
*deḱs- right (direction) Gaulish Dexsiva; Latin dexter; Umbrian [script needed] (destrame); Lithuanian dešinė; Avestan 𐬛𐬀𐬱𐬌𐬥𐬀 (dašina); Albanian djathtë; Old High German zeso; Welsh de; Oscan [script needed] (destrst); Ancient Greek δεξιός (dexiós); Sanskrit दक्षिण (dákṣiṇa); Gothic 𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌷𐍃𐍅𐌰 (taihswa); Irish deas; Tocharian A täk; Old Church Slavonic дєснъ (desnŭ); Russian десни́ца (desníca); Kashmiri [script needed] (dạchūn)
*dlegʰ- to engage oneself Old Irish dliged; Irish dlí; Welsh dyled; Latin indulgeō; Russian долг (dolg); Polish dług; Old Church Slavonic дльгъ (dlĭgŭ)
*dem- to build Sanskrit दम (dáma); Avestan 𐬛𐬄𐬨 (dąm); Ancient Greek δόμος (dómos); Latin domus; Russian дом (dom); Polish dom; Old English timber; English timber; Old High German zimbar; German Zimmer; Old Norse timbr; Umbrian [script needed] (dâmoa); Old Armenian տուն (tun); Lithuanian nãmas; Latvian nams; Tocharian A tam; Tocharian B täm
*dows- forearm Sanskrit दोस् (dos); Avestan 𐬛𐬀𐬊𐬱 (daoš); Old Irish doít, doíd; Lithuanian dilbis; Latvian paduse; Russian па́зуха (pázuxa); Persian دوش (doš)
*dra- to run Sanskrit द्राति (drā́ti); Russian удира́ть (udirátʹ); Ancient Greek ἀπόδρασις (apódrasis), δρόμος (drómos); Illyrian *Dravos; Lithuanian drebėti; German Trappel; Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌰𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌼𐍀𐌰𐌽 (anatrimpan); Avestan 𐬛𐬭𐬀𐬊𐬥𐬀𐬵 (draonah)
*drem- to sleep Russian дрема́ть (dremátʹ); Sanskrit द्रायति (drāyati); Ancient Greek δαρθάνω (darthánō); Latin dormiō; Old Armenian տարտամ (tartam); Polish drzemać; Old Church Slavonic дрємлю (dremlju)
*dus- to fail Sanskrit दुष्यति (duṣyati); Avestan 𐬛𐬎𐬱 (duš); Ancient Greek δέω (déō); Irish do-; Old Armenian տ- (t-); Gothic 𐍄𐌿𐌶- (tuz-); Old Norse tjón; Old English tēona; Old High German zur-; Old Church Slavonic дъждь (dŭždĭ); Russian дождь (doždʹ); Polish deszcz; Old Persian [script needed] (dušiyaram);

Edit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*dʰal- to blossom Alb. dal, Arm. դալար (dalar), Gk. θάλλω (thallō), Welsh dail, Ir. duille/
*dʰeb- fat Russ. дебелый (debelyj), Old Prussian debīkan, Toch. tpär/täpr, ON dapr, Gm. taphar/tapfer, Ltv. dabļš, OCS дєбєлъ (debelŭ)
*dʰegʷʰ- to burn Lith. degti, Ltv. degt, Lat. fovēre, Russ. сжигать; жгучий (sžigat'; žgučij), Alb. djeg, Ir. daig/, Skr. दहति (dahati), Av. dažaiti, Old Prussian dagis, Pers. /dāġ, Gk. τέφρα (tephra), Toch. tsäk/tsäk, OCS жєщи (žešti), Polish żgę, Eng. dǣg/day, Gm. tag/Tag, ON. dagr, Goth. 𐌳𐌰𐌲𐍃 (dags)
*dʰeh₁- to place, set, put Skr. दधाति (dadhāti), Av. daðaiti, Lat. faciō, Oscan faciiad, Umbrian feitu, Hitt. dai, Pers. adadā/, Gk. τίθημι/ (tithēmi/), Lith. dėti, Ltv. dēt, Polish dziać; działać, Russ. деть; делать (det'; delat'), Eng. dōn/do, Gm. tuon/tun, Goth. gadeths, ON dalidun, Phryg. dak-, Gaul. dede, Thrac. didzos, Alb. dhatë; (h)urdhë, Toch. täs/täs, Ir. dál/, Welsh dall, Arm. դնեմ (dnem), Lyc. ta-, OCS дѣлати (dělati)
*dʰeh₁(y)- to suck/suckle Alb. djathë, Arm. դիեմ (diem), Lith. dėlė, Ltv. dēls, Old Prussian dadan, Ir. diul/diuilim, Welsh dynu, Eng. delu/—, Gm. tāen/—; tila/—, Goth. 𐌳𐌰𐌳𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽 (daddjan), ON dilkr, Skr. धयति (dhayati), Av. daēnu, Pers. dadan/, Lat. fēmina; fētus; fēllāre, Umbrian feliuf, Gk. θηλύ (thēlē); θῆλυς (thēlus), OCS доити (doiti), Russ. доить (doit'), Polish doić
*dʰel- light Alb. diell, Arm. դեղին (dełin), Eng. deall/, ON Dellingr, Ir. dellrad/
*dʰers- to dare Skr. धृष्णोति (dhoti), Russ. дерзнуть; дерзкий (derznut'; derzkij), Lat. infestus, OCS дрьзати (drĭzati), Old Prussian dyrsos, Eng. dearr/dare, Gm. giturran/—; gitar/, Gk. θράσος (thrasos), Lith. drįsti, Ltv. drošs, Pers. adaršnauš, Av. daršam, Goth. gadars
*dʰewb- deep Lith. dubti, Ltv. dubens, Gaul. Dubnorīx, Illyr. dubris,Alb. det, Goth. diups, ON diupr, Eng. dēop/deep, Gk. βυθός (buthos), Gm. tiof/tief, Welsh dwfn, Ir. domain/, OCS дъно (dŭno), Russ. дно; дупло (dno; duplo), Polish dno
*dʰewh₂- mist, smoke Skr. धूम (dhūma), Old Prussian dumis, Russ. дым (dym), Lat. fūmus, Gm. toup/toben, Gk. θυμός (thumos), Toch. twe/tweye, Lith. dūmai, Ltv. dūmi, Eng. dōmian/dusk, Goth. dauns, ON daunn, Ir. dé/deathach, Welsh dywy, Oscan Mefit, Polish dym, Pers. /dud, OCS дꙑмъ (dymŭ)
*dʰeyǵʰ- to mold Gk. τεῖχος (teîkhos), Ir. digen/, Russ. дежа (deža), Eng. dāg/dough, Goth. daigs, ON deig, Gm. teig/Teig, Skr. देग्धि (degdhi), Lat. fingō, Av. pairidaēza, Pers. didā/dēz, Arm. դէզ (dēz), Thrac. -dizos, Umbrian fikla, Lith. žiest, Ltv. ziest, Old Prussian siduko, Oscan feíhúss, Toch. tsek/tsik
*dʰrewgʰ- to deceive Lith. draugas, Ltv. draugs, ON draugr; draumr, Skr. द्रुह्यति (druhyati), Av. družaiti, Eng. drēam/dream, Gm. troum/Traum, Pers. drauga/, Ir. aurddrach/
*dʰrey- to defecate Russ. дристать (dristat'), ON dríta, Lith. dergti, Gk. δαρδαίνει (dardainei), Lat. foria, Gm. trīzan/, Low Saxon /driten
*dʰwer- door Arm. դուռն (duṙn), Russ. дверь (dver'), Skr. द्वार् (dvār), Av. dvarəm, Alb. derë, ON dyrr, Eng. duru/door, Gaul. doro, Gk. θύρα (thura), Lith. durys, Ltv. durvis, Old Prussian dwaris, Lat. fores, Umbrian furo, Gm. tor/Tür, Ir. dorus/doras, Toch. —/twere, Kamviri du, Umbrian furo, Welsh dôr, Goth. daur, Polish drzwi, Pers. duvaraya/dar, Thrac. dur, OCS двьри (dvĭri)

ǵEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ǵebʰ- jaw Lith. žebiu, Ltv. zebiekste, Czech žábra, Gm. kivel/Kiefer, Eng. ceafl/jowl, ON keptr, Av. zafar
*ǵenh₁- to give birth Gk. γένος (genos); gónos; gígnesthai, Lat. genus; gigno, Eng. cyn/kin; cyning/king; kind, Gm. kind/Kind; kuning/König, Russ. зять (zjat'), Polish zieć, Av. zīzənti, Skr. जाति (jāti); jánati; jánas, Kamviri zut, Thrac. zenis, Phryg. cin, Ir. cinim/geinim, Goth. kuni, Lith. gentìs, Ltv. znots, Welsh geni; cen; angen, Gaul. Cintugnātus, Pers. zāēdan, Hitt. genzu, Arm. ծին (cin), Toch. kän/kän, Osc. Genetaí, Umb. natine, OCS zętĭ
*ǵews- taste Lat. dēgūnō; gustare, Goth. kiusan, Gm. kiosan/kiesen, Skr. जुषते (juṣate), Av. zaošō, Alb. dua/due, Eng. ceosan/choose, OPers. dauš, OIr. gus; do-goa; asagussim, Gk. γεύομαι (geúomai)
*ǵneh₃- to know, to recognise OCS знати (znati), Russ. знать (znat'), Polish znać, Lith. žinóti, Ltv. zināt, OPruss. posinnāts, Skr. जानाति (jānāti), Kashmiri zānun, Av. paitizānənti, OPers. xšnāsātiy, Osset. zon, Goth. kunnan; kannjan, Gm. kunnan/können; irchennan/kennen, ON kunna; kenna, Eng. cnāwan/know, Toch. knān/nān, OIr. gnáth; gnás; itar-gninim, Welsh gnawd; (g)naws, Umb. naratu, Lat. (g)noscō, Gk. γιγνώσκω (gignōskō), Alb. njeh, Hitt. kanes, Arm. ծանաւթ (canawtʿ)
*ǵerh₂- to mature Lat. granum, Ir. grán, Welsh grawn, OCS зрьно (zrĭno), Czech zrno, Russ. зерно (zerno), Polish ziarno, Lith. žìrnis, Ltv. zirnis, OPruss. syrne, Goth. kaúrn, Gm. kerno/Korn, Eng. corn

gEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*gal- naked Gm. kalo/kahl, OCS glava, Russ. голый (golyj), Lith. galva, Ltv. galva, Polish goły, Old Prussian gallū, Eng. calu/callow
*gal- to call out Alb. gjuhë, Eng. ceallian/call, ON kall, Ir. gall/, Welsh galw, Lat. gallus, OCS гласъ (glasŭ), Russ. голос (golos), Polish głos, Osset. гъалас (g"alas)
*gang- to mock Skr. गञ्ज (gañja), Eng. canc/, Gk. γαγγαίνειν/ (gaggainein/), Russ. гугня (gugnja), Ir. géim/, OCS gǫgŭnivŭ
*gel- cold OCS хладъ (xladŭ), Lat. gelū, Oscan gelan, Eng. ceald/cold, Lith. gelmenis, Gm. kalt/kalt, Russ. холод (xolod), Polish chłód, Gk. γελανδρόν (gelandron), ON kaldr, Goth. kalds
*gerh₂- crane Gk. γέρανος (geranos), Lat. grūs, Arm. կռունկ (kṙunk), Gm. krano/Kranich, Eng. cran/crane, Lith. garnis, Ltv. dzērve, Old Prussian gerwe, Russ. журавль (žuravl'), Polish żuraw, Welsh garan, ON trana
*gerbʰ- to scratch Russ. жребий (žrebij), Old Prussian gīrbin, Gk. γράφω (gráphō), Gm. kerban/kerben, Eng. ceorfan/carve, Arm. քերեմ (kʿerem), Alb. gërvish, Ltv. grīpsta, OCS žrĕbŭ
*glag- milk Gk. γάλα (gála), Lat. lac, Hitt. galank, Kamviri zu, MIr. glas, Welsh glas-dwr, Alb. dhallë
*grabʰ- hornbeam/oak Russ. граб (grab), Polish grab, Lith. skroblas, Ltv. skābardis, OPruss wosi-grabis, Umbrian Graboui, XMK grabion
*grad- hail Russ. град (grad), Lith. gruodas, Arm. կարկուտ (karkut), Polish grad, OCS gradŭ
*gras- to gnaw Gk. βρύκω, Skr. ग्रसति (grasati), Russ. грызть (gryzt'), Lith gráužti, Lat. grānem, Ir. brón/, Welsh brwyn

ǵʰEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ǵʰelh₃- to shine Lat. helvus; fel, Lith. gelta; žalias; želta, Ltv. dzeltens; zaļš; zelts, Russ. жёлтый; зелёный; золото (žëltyj; zelënyj; zoloto), Gm. gelo/gelb; gold/Gold, Phryg. zelkia, Eng. geolu/yellow; gold/gold, Alb. dhelpër/dhelpën, Welsh gwelw, Ir. gel/gealach, Polish żółty; zielony; złoto, Gk. χλωρός (khlōrós), ON gulr; gull, Pers. /zard; daraniya/, Av. zaray; zaranya, Goth. gulþ, Skr. हरि (hári); हिरण्य (hiraṇya), Old Prussian gelatynan; saligan; sealtmeno, OCS злато (zlato); зєлєнъ (zelenŭ)
*ǵʰer- bowels Lat. hernia, Skr. हिर (híra), Gk. χορδή (khordḗ), ON gǫrn, Gm. garn/Garn, Eng. gearn/yarn, Arm. ձառ (jaṙ), Lith. žarna, Ltv. zarna, Hitt. karat, Alb. zorrë
*ǵʰer- to enclose Lith. gardas; žardas, Ltv. zārds, Phryg. gordum, Lat. hortus, Skr. हरति (harati), Welsh garth, Eng. geard/yard, Gm. garto/Garten, ON garðr, Gk. χόρτος (khórtos), Ir. gort, Oscan herííad, Gaul. gorto, Hitt. gurtas, Goth. garda, Alb. gardh, Russ. город (gorod), Toch. /kerccī, Avest. gərədha
*ǵʰers- rigid Alb. derr, Skr. हर्षते (harate), Av. zaršayamna, Arm. ձար (jar), Gk. χέρσος (khersos), Lat. horrēo, Ir. garb/garbh, Welsh garw, Eng. gorst/
*ǵʰew- pour Lat. fūtis; fundo, Gk. χύνω (khunō); khylós, Skr. जुहोति (juhóti), Goth. giutan, Gm. giozan/giessen, Eng. guttas/gut, ON gjóta, Arm. ձեւ (jew), ձոյլ (joyl), Av. zaotar, Pers. zōr, Toch. kutär/ku, Welsh gewai, Alb. dyllë, Phryg. Zeuman; *ǵʰutós (poured, libated)
*ǵʰwel- to bend Ltv. nuožvelnus, Ltv. zvelt, Russ. злой (zloj), Polish zły, Skr. ह्वरति (hvarati), Av. zbarəmnəm, Pers. /zūr
*ǵʰwen- to sound OCS звонъ (zvonŭ), Russ. звон (zvon), Arm. ձայն (jayn), Alb. zë/zâ, Toch. ka/kene, Polish dzwon, Lith. žvengti, Ltv. zviegt
*ǵʰwer- beast Lat. ferus, OCS звѣрь (zvěrĭ), Russ. зверь (zver'), Lith. žvėris. Ltv. zvērs, Gk. θήρ (thēr), Polish zwierzę, Old Prussian swīrins, Toch. śaru/śerwe
*ǵʰey- winter Skr. हिम (himá), हेमन्त (hemantá), Lat. hiems, Gk. χεῖμα (kheîma), Gaul. Giamillus, OCS зима (zima), Russ. зима (zima), Polish zima, Lith. žiema, Ltv. ziema, Old Prussian semo, Av. zimo, Arm. ձմեռն (jmeṙn), Alb. dimër/dimën, Kamviri z, Pers. /زمستان (zemestān), Toch. śärme/śimpriye, Welsh gaeaf, Ir. gamh/geimhreadh, Hitt. 𒄀𒈠𒀭 (giman), ON gói, Pers. dai, Eng. gamol/

Edit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*gʰh₁bʰ- to take Skr. गभस्ति (gabhasti), Alb. grabit/grabis, Lat. habēre, Oscan hafíar, Umbrian habe, Ir. gaibid, Welsh gafael, Lith. gabenti; gabana, Ltv. gabana, Gaul. gabi, OCS gobino
*gʰedʰ- to join, to unite Lith. guodas, Ltv. gods, Eng. gōd/good, Gm. guot/gut, Goth. gōþs; gōds, ON gōðr, Skr. गध्य (gadhya), OCS godŭ, Russ. год (god), Polish gody, Toch. kātk/kātk
*gʰel- to call Eng. gellan/yell, Gk. χελιδών (khelidōn), Skr. प्रगल्भ (pragalbha), Goth. gōljan, Gm. gellan/gellen, Lith. gulbinti, ON gjalla
*gʰed- to take Alb. gjej, Eng. begetan/beget; forgetan/forget, Gm. firgezzen/vergessen, ON geta, Goth. bigitan, Gk. ktaomai; ktēma, Ir. geind/geinn, Welsh gaing, Lat. prehendere, Lith. godetis, OCS gadati
*gʰlew- to joke Eng. glēo/glee, Lith. glauda, Ltv. glaust, Gk. χλεύη (khleuē), ON glý, Russ. глум (glum), OCS bezŭ gluma
*gʰreh₁- to grow, to become green Eng. grōwan/grow; grēne/green; græs/grass, Gm. gruoen/—; gruoni/grün; gras/Gras, Goth. gras, ON groa; grænn; gras
*gʰrendʰ- beam Lith. grindys, Ltv. grīda, ON grind, Polish grzęda, Russ. гряда (grjada), Kamviri uga, Eng. grindel/, Gm. grindil/, Dutch grendel

Edit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*gʷeh₂dʰ- to sink Gk. βάθος (bathos), Skr. गाहते (gāhate), Av. vigāθō, Ir. bádud/báthaim, Welsh boddi
*gʷeyh₃- sinew Lat. fīlum, OCS žitsa, Russ. жила (žila), Arm. ջիլ (ǰil), ջիղ (ǰił), Lith. gija, Ltv. dzija, Welsh giau, Polish żyła
*gʷeyh₃- to live Skr. जीवति (jīvati), Lat. vivere, Lith. gyventi, Ltv. dzīvs, Old Prussian gi(j)wan, OCS žiti, Russ. жить (žit'), Polish żyć, Eng. cwicu/quick, ON kvikr, Gm. quec/keck, Goth. qius, Gk. βίος (bios), Ir. bethu/beatha, Welsh byd, Gaul. Biturīges, Pers. gaiθā/zēstan, Av. gaēθā; jiġaēsa, Toch. śo/śai, Arm. կեամ (keam), Oscan bivus
*gʷelbʰ- womb Eng. wamb/womb, Gm. wamba/Wamme, Goth. wamba, ON vomb, Skr. गर्भ (garbha), Gk. δελφύς (delphus), Lith. gimda,
*gʷem-, *gʷeh₂- to go, come Lat. veniō, Skr. गच्छति (gácchati)/गमति (gamati) , Av. jamaiti, Toch. kum/käm, Eng. cuman/come, Arm. եկ (ek), Gm. coman/kommen, Kamviri âca, ON koma, Pers. jamijāh/, Goth. qiman, Oscan kúmbennieís, Lith. gimti, Ltv. dzimt, Old Prussian gimsenin, Alb. pregjim, Gk. βῆμα (bēma)
*gʷer- mount Russ. гора (gora), Lith. guras, Skr. गिरि (giri), Av. gairi, Gk. δειράς (deiras), Alb. gur, Arm. լեառն (leaṙn), Polish góra, OCS gora
*gʷerH- to praise Lat. grātēs, Russ. жрец (žrets), Alb. grish, Lith. girti, Ltv. dzirt, Skr. गृनाति (gnāti), Ir. bard/bárd, Old Prussian girtwei, Toch. krant-/krent-, Welsh bardd, Oscan brateis, Av. aibigərənte
*gʷreh₂- heavy Lat. gravis, Eng. cweorn/quern, Skr. गुरु (guru), Av. gouruzaθra, Lith. gurstu, Ltv. gurstu, Toch. krāmärts/krāmär, Gk. βάρος (baros), ON kvern, Goth. kaúrjōs, Pers. /girān, Welsh bryw, Ir. bair/, Old Prussian girnoywis, Gm. quirn/Querne, OCS žŭrnŭvi, Polish żarna, Russ. жёрнов (žjornov)
*gʷerh₃- to devour Alb. ngrënë/ngranë, Arm. կեր (ker), Lith. gerti, Ltv. dzert, Ir. bráge/bráighid, Welsh breuant, Skr. गिरति (girati), Av. jaraiti, Gk. βορά (bora); βρῶμα (brōma), Lat. vorāre, Gm. quedar/Köder, ON krás, Russ. жрать (žrat'), Polish żreć
*gʷrebʰ- womb Gk. βρέφος (brephos), Ir. brommach/, OCS жрѣбѧ (žrěbę), Russ. жеребёнок (žerebjonok), Polish źrebię
*gʷruHǵʰ- to bite Lith. graužti, Ltv. grauzt, Russ. грызть (gryzt'), Welsh brwyn, Polish gryźć, Alb. me gicë, Gk. βρύχω (brukhō), Ir. brón/brón, Arm. կրծեմ (krcem), OCS gryzǫ

gʷʰEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*gʷʰer- warm Alb. zjarr,zjarm Russ. жар (žar), Lith. garas, Ltv. gars, Phryg. germe, Arm. ջերմ (ǰerm), Eng. bearnan/burn; wearm/warm, ON brenna; varmr, Gm. brinnan/brennen; warm/warm, Goth. brinnan;, warmjan, Gk. θερμός (thermos), Skr. घृण (ghṛṇa); घर्म (gharma-), Kashmiri germi, Thrac. germas, Pers. garmapada/garm, Ir. gorim/goraim, Hitt. war, Old Prussian goro, Av. garəma, Welsh gori, Kashmiri garū'm, Lat. furnus; forma
*gʷʰedʰ- to ask Eng. biddian/bid; bed/bead, Gm. pittan/bitten; beta/Gebet, Goth. bidjan; bida, ON biðja, Skr. गध्य (gadhya), Russ. пытать (pytat'), Lat. manifestus
*gʷʰen- to press; to strike, slay, kill Skr. हन्ति (hanti), Av. (jainti), Pers. /zahr; ajanam/, Lith. ginti, Ltv. dzīt, Old Prussian guntwei, OCS gŭnati, Russ. жать; гнать (žat'; gnat'), Polish gnać, Alb. gjanj, Arm. գան (gan), ջնեմ (ǰnem), ջնջեմ (ǰnǰem), Ir. gonim/gonadh, Gk. θείνω (theinō); φόνος (phonos), Hitt. kwen, Lyd. qn-, Eng. gūþ/—; bana/bane, Gm. gundfano/—, Goth. banja; pano/Bahn ON gunnr; bani

h₁Edit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₁ed- to eat Lithuanian ėsti, Latvian ēst, Old Prussian ist, Russian есть (jestʹ), Polish jeść, Sanskrit अत्ति (átti), Avestan 𐬀𐬛 (ad), Old Armenian ուտեմ (utem), Hittite 𒂊𒀉𒈪 (eidmi), Luwian [script needed] (ad-); Luwian [script needed] (az-), Palaic [script needed] (ata-), Latin edō, Oscan edum, Ancient Greek ἔδω (édō), Old English etan/English eat, Old High German essan/German essen, Old Norse eta, Gothic 𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 (itan), Old Irish esse, Thracian [script needed] (esko-), Tocharian B yesti, Old Church Slavonic ꙗсти (jasti)
*h₁edʰ- sharp Russian ель (jelʹ), Lithuanian eglė, Latvian egle, Latin ebulus, Gaulish odocos, Old Irish aidlen/Irish ailim, Old Prussian addle, Old English ellærn/English elder (tree), Old High German attuh, Polish jodła, Ancient Greek ἐλάτη (elátē)
*h₁engʷ- gland Albanian angërr, Ancient Greek ἀδήν (adḗn), Latin inguen, Old Norse ǫkkvinn
*h₁es- to be Old Church Slavonic єстъ (estŭ), Russian есть (jestʹ), Lithuanian esmi, Latvian esmu, Old Prussian asmai, Ancient Greek ἐστί (estí), Old Irish am, Sanskrit अस्ति (ásti), Avestan 𐬀𐬯𐬙𐬌 (asti), Latin esse, Umbrian sent, Oscan súm, Old English is/English is, Old Armenian եմ (em), Polish jest, Serbo-Croatian biti, Albanian është/Gheg Albanian âsht, Old High German ist/German ist, Gothic 𐌹𐍃𐍄 (ist), Old Norse es, Hittite 𒂊𒌍𒍣 (ēszi), Lycian [script needed] (es), Luwian [script needed] (as), Lydian [script needed] (e-), Palaic [script needed] (aš-), ṣe/ṣei, Old Persian 𐎠𐎿𐎫𐎡𐎹 (astiy)/Persian است (ast)
*h₁er- goat Old Armenian որոճ (oroč), Lithuanian ėriukas, Lithuanian jērs, Old Prussian eristian, Latin ariēs, Umbrian erietu, Old Irish heirp/Irish earb, Ancient Greek ἔριφος (ériphos), Old High German irah, Serbo-Croatian jȁre
*h₁ew- to dress Avestan 𐬀𐬊𐬚𐬭𐬀 (aoθra); Russian обу́ть (obútʹ); Polish obuć; Lithuanian aũti; Latvian àut; Latin exuō, Latin induō, Latin subūcula; Old Armenian ագանիմ (aganim); Old Prussian auclo; Umbrian anovihimu; Old Irish fúan; Welsh gŵn; Old Church Slavonic обути (obuti); Old Church Slavonic изоути (izuti); Albanian mbath; /Tocharian B ewe
*h₁ews- to burn Albanian ushël, Lithuanian usnis, Latvian usna, Latin ūrō, Ancient Greek εὕω (heúō), Old High German eimuria, Old English ǣmerge/English ember, Old Norse usli, Sanskrit ओषति (oṣati)
*h₁ey- to go Sanskrit एति (éti), Avestan 𐬇𐬌𐬙𐬌 (ə̄iti), Ancient Greek εἶμι (eîmi), Latin , Umbrian ier, Oscan eítuns, Kamviri [script needed] (ie), Gaulish eimu, Tocharian A i/Tocharian B i, Old Irish ethaim, Old Persian 𐎠𐎡𐎫𐎡𐎹 (aitiy), Old Church Slavonic ити (iti), Luwian 𒄿𒄿 (iti), Gothic 𐌹𐌳𐌳𐌾𐌰 (iddja), Old English ēode, Lithuanian eiti, Latvian iet, Old Prussian eit, Russian идти́ (idtí), Polish iść, Albanian ik
*h₁lengʷʰ- lightweight Albanian lehtë, Avestan 𐬭𐬀𐬔𐬎 (ragu), Old English lēoht/English light, Old High German līht/German leicht, Gothic 𐌻𐌴𐌹𐌷𐍄𐍃 (leihts), Ancient Greek ἐλαχύς (elakhús), Old Irish laigiu, Kashmiri [script needed] (lo.t), Latin levis, Latvian liegs, Lithuanian leñgva, Old Church Slavonic льгъкъ (lĭgŭkŭ), Old Prussian lāngiseilingins, Old Norse lēttr, Polish lekki, Russian лёгкий (ljóxkij), Sanskrit लघु (laghu), Tocharian B lankŭtse, Welsh llaw
*h₁lewdʰ- people Old English lēod/English lede; Old High German liuti/German Leute; Old Norse ljóðr; Latvian ļaudis; Russian лю́ди (ljúdi)
*h₁wegʷʰ- to praise Sanskrit वाघत् (vāghat), Avestan 𐬭𐬀𐬱𐬙𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬬𐬀𐬕𐬆𐬥𐬙𐬌 (raštarəvaġənti), Ancient Greek εὔχομαι (eúkhomai), Old Armenian գոգեմ (gogem), Latin vovēre, Umbrian vufetes
*h₁rebʰ- to roof Ancient Greek ἐρέφω (eréphō), Old Church Slavonic рєбро (rebro), Russian ребро́ (rebró), Old English ribb/English rib, Old Norse rif, Old High German ribba/German Rippe, Polish żebro
*h₁rep- to snatch Latin rapere, Ancient Greek ἐρέπτομαι (eréptomai), Ancient Greek ἁρπάζω (harpázō); Lithuanian ap-répti; Old English reopan/English reap; German reifsen; Albanian rjep
*h₁rewdʰ- red Latin ruber; Old English rēad/English red; Lithuanian raudonas; Latvian ruds; Sanskrit रुधिर (rudhira); Russian рдеть (rdetʹ); Ancient Greek ἐρυθρός (eruthrós); Tocharian A rtär/Tocharian B ratre; Avestan 𐬭𐬀𐬊𐬜𐬌𐬙𐬀 (raoδita); Gothic 𐍂𐌰𐌿𐌸𐍃 (rauþs); Old Norse rauðr, Old Norse rjóðr; Old High German rōt/German rot; Oscan Rufriis; Umbrian rufru; Old Irish rúad/Irish rua; Welsh rhudd; Gaulish Roudos
*h₁rewg- to vomit Russian рыга́ть (rygátʹ); Polish rzygać; Lithuanian riaugėti; Latvian raugāties; Ancient Greek ἐρεύγομαι (ereúgomai); Latin ructāre; Old English rēocan/English reek; Old High German rouhhan/German rauchen, Old High German itruchen; Old Norse reykja; Persian [script needed] (āroġ); Armenian ործամ (orcam)

h₂Edit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂eǵʰ- plough animal Old Armenian եզն (ezn); Old Irish ag/Irish agh; Welsh ael, Welsh eilion; Sanskrit अही (ahī); Avestan 𐬀𐬰𐬍 (azī)
*h₂eḱ- sharp ἄκρος (ákros); Latin ācer; Sanskrit अश्रि (aśri); остръ (ostrŭ); Russian ость (ostʹ), Russian острый (ostryj); Old Irish aicher; Lithuanian aštrus; Latvian asmens; Gothic 𐌰𐌷𐍃 (ahs); Persian [script needed] (ās); Gaulish Akrotalus; Welsh eithiw; Oscan akrid; Umbrian peracri; Old Armenian ասեղն (asełn); Albanian athët; Tocharian A āk/Tocharian B āke; Old English ecg/English edge; Old Norse egg; Old High German egga/German Ecke; Polish ostry; Ancient Macedonian [script needed] (akrounoi)
*h₂en- ancestor ἀννίς (annís); Latin anus, Latin anna; ana; ano/Ahn; Lithuanian anyta; Hittite [script needed] (hannas); Old Armenian հան (han); Russian внук (vnuk); Old Prussian ane; Old Irish Ana
*h₂enǵʰ- narrow ἄγχω (ánkhō)/; Sanskrit अंहु (aṃhu); Avestan 𐬄𐬰𐬀𐬢𐬵𐬉 (ązaŋhē); Russian узкий (uzkij); Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍅𐌿𐍃 (aggwus); Old Norse aungr; Old Armenian անձուկ (anjuk); Old High German engi/German eng; Hittite [script needed] (hamenk); Old Church Slavonic ѫзъкъ (ǫzŭkŭ); Polish wąski; Lithuanian ankšta; Tocharian A eṁts/Tocharian B entse; Old English enge/; Welsh yng; Old Irish cumung/Irish cung; Latin angor, Latin angere; Albanian ang
*h₂enh₁- breathe Sanskrit अन (ana); Gothic 𐌿𐌶𐌰𐌽𐌰𐌽 (uzanan), Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌹 (andi); Old Irish animm, Old Irish anál; ἄνεμος (ánemos); Latin animus, Latin anima; Old Church Slavonic вонꙗти (vonjati); Russian вонь (vonʹ); Welsh anysbryd; Old Norse anda, Old Norse ǫnd; Old English eþian, Old English ōþian; Welsh eneid; Avestan 𐬂𐬥𐬙𐬌𐬌𐬀 (åntiia); Lithuanian anuoti; Old Armenian անձն (anjn), Old Armenian հողմ (hołm); Albanian ëj/Gheg Albanian âj; Oscan anamum; Tocharian A āñcäm/Tocharian B āñme
*h₂enk- angle Old High German ango; Ossetian æнгуыр (æng°yr); Sanskrit अङ्क (áṅka); Latin ancus; Lithuanian anka; Latvian āķis; Old Armenian անկիւն (ankiwn); ὄγκος (ónkos), ἄγκος (ánkos); Russian угол (ugol); Old Norse angi; Avestan 𐬀𐬢𐬐𐬎𐬞𐬆𐬯𐬆𐬨𐬥𐬀 (aŋkupəsəmna); Welsh angad, Welsh crafanc; Old Irish écath; Hittite [script needed] (hink)
*h₂ep- (body of) water Old English ōfer/, Old English fisc/English fish; /German Ufer, Old High German fisc/German Fisch; Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐍃𐌺𐍃 (fisks); Old Norse fiskr; Latin amnis, Latin piscis; 𒄩𒉺𒀀 (ḫapaa); Palaic [script needed] (ḫapnas); 𒄩𒀀𒁉𒅖 (ḫāpis); Russian пескарь (peskarʹ); Polish piskorz; Latvian upe; Lithuanian upė; Old Prussian ape; Sanskrit अप् (áp); Sanskrit अफ (apha); Avestan 𐬀𐬟𐬱 (afš); Tocharian A āp/Tocharian B āp 𐎠𐎱𐎡𐎹𐎠 (apiyā)/آب (āb)
*h₂ep- to reach Avestan 𐬀𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬌𐬈𐬌𐬙𐬌 (apaiieiti); Latin apex; Sanskrit आप्त (āpta); Ancient Greek ἅπτω (háptō); Old Armenian ունիմ (unim); Hittite [script needed] (apanzi); Tocharian A oppäśśi; Polish opaść
*h₂er- nut Lithuanian ruošutỹs; Russian орех (orex); Albanian arrë; Ancient Greek ἄρυα (árua); Polish orzech; Hittite [script needed] (harau)
*h₂erh₃- to plow Tocharian A āre/Tocharian B āre; {{cog|la|arō; aratrum; Ancient Greek ἀροτήρ (arotḗr); Lithuanian arti, ārklas; Latvian art; Old Church Slavonic орати (orati); Russian орать (oratʹ); արաւր (arawr); Polish orać; Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌾𐌰𐌽 (arjan); Old English erian; Old Norse arðr, Welsh aredig, aradr; Old Irish airim, arathar; Old Prussian artoys; Old High German erien
*h₂erk- to lock Ancient Greek ἀρκέω (arkéō); Latin arcēre; Old Armenian արգել (argel); Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌺𐌰 (arka); Old Prussian arkan; Polish arkan; Hittite [script needed] (ḫark-); Tocharian B ārk; Oscan [script needed] (trííbarakavúm); Lithuanian raktas, užrakinti
*h₂ew- to help Sanskrit अवति (ávati); Latin aveō, avārus; Avestan 𐬀𐬎𐬎𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (auuaiti); Old Armenian աւիւն (awiwn); Gaulish Avicantus; Ancient Greek -αονες (-aones)?; Lithuanian aušti; Latvian aust; Old Irish con·oí; Tocharian A olar/Tocharian B aulāre; Old Norse auð; Old English īþe; Old High German ōdmuoti; Welsh ewyllys, adaw
*h₂ewg- to glance Ancient Greek αὐγή (augḗ); Albanian ag, agoj; Russian юг (jug); Old Church Slavonic югъ (jugŭ)
*h₂ewg- to increase Lithuanian augti; Latvian augt; Latin auctis; Ancient Greek αὐξάνω (auxánō); Sanskrit उग्र (ugra); Tocharian A ok/Tocharian B auk; Old English eacan/English eke, Old English weaxan/English wax; Old High German ouh/German auch, Old High German wahsan/German wachsen; Old Norse auka, vaxa; Gothic 𐌰𐌿𐌺𐌰𐌽 (aukan), 𐍅𐌰𐌷𐍃𐌾𐌰𐌽 (wahsjan); Old Prussian auginnons; Umbrian [script needed] (uhtur)
*h₂ews- dawn Latin ver, Aurōra; Lithuanian aušra; Latvian ausma; Old High German ōstra/German Osten; Sanskrit उषस् (uṣas); Russian утро (utro); Old English ēast/English east; Ancient Greek ἠώς (ēṓs), ᾱ̓ήρ (āḗr), αὔριον (aúrion); Old Norse austr; Avestan 𐬎𐬱𐬀𐬯𐬙𐬀𐬭𐬀 (ušastara); Irish fáir; Welsh gwawr; Albanian err
*h₂ey- vital force Sanskrit आयु (āyu); Latin aevum; Old Irish áes/Irish aois; Avestan 𐬁𐬌𐬌𐬏 (āiiū); Tocharian A āym; Old English æfre/English ever; Old High German īo/German je, Old High German êwig/German ewig; Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐍅𐍃 (aiws); Old Norse ei; Ancient Greek αἰών (aiṓn); Albanian eshë
*h₂eyg- sick Latin aeger; Tocharian A ekroill/Tocharian B aikare; Old Norse eikenn, eikja/eikla; Lithuanian ingas; Latvian angus; Old Church Slavonic ѩса (jęsa); Russian яга (jaga); Polish jędza; Old English ācol; Albanian kë-ëk
*h₂eyǵ- goat Sanskrit एड (eḍa); Avestan 𐬌𐬰𐬀𐬉𐬥𐬀 (izaēna); Old Persian [script needed] (azg); Old Armenian այծ (ayc); Ancient Greek αἴξ (aíx); Albanian edh; Lithuanian ožỹs; Latvian āzis
*h₂eyǵ- oak Lithuanian ąžuolas; Latin aesculus; Ancient Greek αἰγίλωψ (aigílōps), κράταιγος (krátaigos); Old Norse eik; Old English āc/English oak; Old High German eihha/German Eiche; Middle Irish áesc; Albanian enjë
*h₂eyḱ- spear/pike Ancient Greek αἶκλοι (aîkloi)?; Latin īcō; Old Prussian aysmis; Old Church Slavonic игла (igla); Polish igła; Avestan 𐬌𐬱𐬀𐬭𐬆 (išarə); Lithuanian iešmas; Latvian iesms; Old Norse eigin; Russian игла (igla)
*h₂eyḱ- to be master of; to possess Old English āgan/English ought; Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 (aigan); Old High German eigan/German eigen; Old Norse eiga; Sanskrit ईष्टे (īṣṭe); Avestan 𐬍𐬱𐬙𐬌 (īšti)
*h₂eym- copy Hittite [script needed] (ḫimma); Latin aemulus, imāgō, reimere, geminus; Middle Irish emon; Albanian gjysmë; Lithuanian jumis; Sanskrit यम (yamá); Avestan 𐬫𐬌𐬨𐬀 (yima)
*h₂melǵ- to milk Latin mulgeō; Old English melcan/English milk; Old High German melcan/German melken; Gothic 𐌼𐌹𐌻𐌿𐌺𐍃 (miluks); Old Norse mjǫlk; Tocharian A malke/Tocharian B malkwer; Ancient Greek ἀμέλγω (amélgō); Old Irish melg, bligim; Welsh blith; Lithuanian melžti; Russian молозиво (molozivo); Sanskrit मर्जति (marjati); Albanian mjel
*h₂wap- bad; evil Hittite [script needed] (ḫuwapp); Old English yfel/English evil; Old High German ubil/German Übel; Gothic 𐌿𐌱𐌹𐌻𐍃 (ubils)
*h₂weh₁- to blow Old English weder/English weather, wind, Old English wāwan, Old High German waian/German wehen, Wind; Old Norse vindr; Latin ventus; Sanskrit वाति (vā́ti); Ancient Greek ἄημι (áēmi), ᾱ̓τμός (ātmós); Avestan 𐬬𐬁𐬌𐬙𐬌 (vāiti); Hittite [script needed] (ḫuwantiš); Lithuanian vėjas; Latvian vējš; Old Prussian wins; Tocharian A want/Tocharian B yente; Old Church Slavonic вѣтръ (větrŭ); Russian ве́ять (véjatʹ); Polish wiać; Welsh gwynt; Old Irish feth

h₃Edit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₃em- bitter Gk. ὠμός (ōmós), Lat. amārus, Ir. om/amh, Arm. հում (hum), Skr. अम्ल (amlás), Eng. ampre/, ON apr, Ltv. amols, Alb. ëmbël, XMK abro-
*h₃engʷ- to anoint Skr. अनक्ति (anakti), Arm. աւծ (awc), Ir. imb/im, Lat. unguō, Umb. umtu, OPruss. anctan, Gm. ancho/Anke, Welsh ymenyn
*h₃ers- to protrude Gk. οὐρά (ourá), Arm. ոռ (oṙ), Hitt. arras, Eng. ears/arse, Ir. err/earr, Gm. ars/Arsch, ON ars
*h₃meyǵʰ- to urinate Skr. मेहति (mehati), Av. maēsati, Lith. myžti; miglà, Ltv. mīzt, Russ. мезга (mezga), Arm. մէզ (mēz), Toch. —/miśo, Gk. ὀμείχω (omeíkhō), ON míga, Goth. maihstus, Eng. māsc/mash, /mist, Gm. /Maisch; miskan/mischen, Lat. meiere, Kurd. méz, Alb. mjegull; përmjerr
*h₃nebʰ- navel Lat. umbo; umbilīcus, Skr. नभ्य (nabhya), Av. nāba, Ltv. naba, Gm. nabalo/Nabel, Eng. nafela/navel, ON nafli, Gk. ὀμφαλός (omphalós), Ir. imbliu/imleac, Kashmiri naf, OPruss. nabis, Pers. nāf
*h₃negʰ- nail Gk. ὄνυξ (ónux), Lat. unguis, Skr. नख (nakha), अङ्घ्रि (aghri), Gm. nagel/Nagel, OCS noguti, Russ. ноготь (nogot'), Lith. nagas, Ltv. nags, Av. nakhara, Arm. եղունգն (ełungn), Welsh ewin, Eng. nægl/nail, Pers. nāxun, Ir. inga/ionga
*h₃ekʷ- eye Lat. oculus, OCS oko, Russ. око (oko), Toch. ak/ek, Arm. ակն (akn), աչք (ačʿkʿ), Skr. अक्षि (akṣi), Gk. ὄσσε (ósse); ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmós), Eng. ēge/eye, Gm. ouga/Auge, Goth. augo, Alb. sy, Lith. akis, Ltv. acs, Kamviri âč, Ir. enech/oineach, Welsh enep, ON auga, Polish oko, Old Prussian ackis
*h₃reǵ- to straighten Lat. regere, Gk. ὀρέγω (orégō), Eng. riht/right, Gm. reht/recht, ON réttr, Goth. raihts, Thrac. rhesus, Toch. räk/räk;
*h₃rēǵ-(h₃ón-) "ruler, king": Skr. राजन् (rājan), Oscan regaturei, Lat. rēx, Gaul. rīx, Ir. ríg/rígh, Welsh rhi, Av. raz, Pers. rahst, Alb. radhë
*h₃yebʰ- to copulate Gm. eiba/—, Skr. यभति (yabhati), Russ. еба́ть (jebátʹ), Illyr. Oibalos, Gk. οἴφω (oíphō)/, Polish jebać

HEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*Heh₃l- elbow Old High German elina/German Elle, Ancient Greek ὠλένη (ōlénē), Old Armenian ոլոք (olokʿ), Lithuanian uolektis, Latvian olekts, Russian ло́коть (lókotʹ), Sanskrit आणि (āṇi), Welsh elin, Old English eln/English ell, Old Irish uilin/Irish uille, Gothic 𐌰𐌻𐌴𐌹𐌽𐌰 (aleina), Old Norse aln, Albanian llërë/Gheg Albanian llânë, Avestan 𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬚𐬥𐬀 (arəθna), Old Prussian woaltis, Old Church Slavonic лакъть (lakŭtĭ), Polish łokieć, Persian ارن (āran, aran)

Edit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ḱak- branch Old Armenian: ճիւղ (čiwł)
Lithuanian: šakà
Latvian: saka
Sanskrit: शाखा (śā́khā)
Russian: соха́ (soxá)
Albanian: thekë
Gothic: 𐌷𐍉𐌷𐌰 (hōha)
Kamviri: [script needed] (coa)
Old Prussian: sagnis
Old Irish: géc
Irish: géag
Welsh: cainc
Old High German: huohili
Persian: شاخه (šāxe(h))
*ḱas- gray Latin: cānus, cascus
Sanskrit: षष (ṣaṣa)
Old High German: hasan, haso
German: Hase
Old Prussian: sasins
Old English: hasu, hara
English: hare
Old Norse: hǫss, heri
Welsh: cannu, ceinach
Pashto: [script needed] (soe)
*ḱat- battle Old Church Slavonic: котора (kotora)
Gaulish: catu
Old English: heaþu
Old High German: hathu
German: Hader
Sanskrit: शातयति (śātayati)
Old Norse: hoð
Old Irish: cath
Irish: cath
Welsh: cad
Tocharian B: keta
Hittite: [script needed] (kattu)
Ancient Greek: κότος (kótos)
*ḱeh₂d- hate Old English: hete
English: hate
Old High German: haz
German: Hass
Gothic: 𐌷𐌰𐍄𐌹𐍃 (hatis)
Old Norse: hatr
Sanskrit: रिशादस् (riśā́das)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬁𐬛𐬭𐬀 (sādra)
Ancient Greek: κῆδος (kêdos)
Oscan: [script needed] (cadeis amnud)
Old Irish: caiss
Irish: cais
Welsh: câs, cawdd
Tocharian A: kat
*ḱey- to lie; settle Old Armenian: սէր (sēr)
Lithuanian: šeima
Old Church Slavonic: сѣмьꙗ (sěmĭja)
Old English: hām
English: home
Old High German: heim
German: Heim
Old Norse: heimr
Latin: cīvis, cūnae
Old Irish: coím
Irish: caoimh
Ancient Greek: κεῖμαι (keîmai), κώμη (kṓmē)
Sanskrit: क्षेति (kṣéti), शेते (śḗtē)
Avestan: 𐬱𐬀𐬉𐬌𐬙𐬌 (šaēiti)
*ḱel- warm Latvian: silts
Lithuanian: šilti
Old Irish: clithe
Welsh: clyd
Old Norse: hlǽr
Old English: hlēow, hlēo
English: lukewarm, lee
Old High German: lāo
German: lau
Sanskrit: शिशिर (śiśira), शरद् (śarad)
Latin: caleō, calidus
French: chaud
Kurdish: sarr
*ḱer- horn Latin: cerĕbrum, cervus, cornū
Russian: се́рна (sérna), че́реп (čérep)
Old Prussian: kerpetis, sirwis
Ancient Greek: κέρας (kéras)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬭𐬏 (srū), 𐬯𐬭𐬎𐬎𐬁 (sruuā), 𐬯𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬵 (sarah)
Sanskrit: शिरस् (śíras), शृङ्ग (śṛ́ṅga)
Old Armenian: սար (sar)
Breton: kern, karn
Old High German: hirni, horn
German: Hirn, Horn
Old Norse: hjarni, horn Persian: سر (sar), شاخ (šāx)
Tocharian B: krāñi
Ossetian: сӕр (sær), сыкъа́ (syk’á)
Albanian: krye, sorkadh
Old English: horn
English: horn
Kamviri: [script needed] (ṣiṅ)
Gothic: 𐌷𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌽 (haurn)
Hittite: [script needed] (karawar)
Lithuanian: širšė
Latvian: sirsis
Gaulish: karnuks
Old Irish: cern
Irish: cearn
Polish: krowa
Kurdish: ser
*ḱerh₂- to mix Old English: hrēr
English: rare
Old High German: hruoren
German: rühren
Old Norse: hrǿra
Sanskrit: श्रायति (śrāyati)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬀𐬭 (sar)
Ancient Greek: κρατήρ (kratḗr)
*ḱers- to run Latin: currō
Gaulish: carros
Ancient Greek: ἐπίκουρος (epíkouros)
Welsh: carrog
Old Irish: carr
Tocharian A: kursär
Tocharian B: kwasär
Old High German: horsk, hros
German: Ross
Old Norse: horskr, hross
Old English: horsc, hors, hrȳscan
English: horse, rush
*ḱley- to lean Latin: clīnō
Old Irish: clóin
Ancient Greek: κλίνη (klínē)
Old English: hlēonian
English: lean
Old Armenian: լեառն (leaṙn)
Lithuanian: šlieti
Latvian: sliet
Russian: слой (sloj)
Sanskrit: श्रयति (śrayati)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬭𐬌𐬥𐬎 (srinu)
Old High German: hlīnen
German: lehnen
Welsh: clwyd
Old Prussian: slayan
Tocharian A: kälyme
Tocharian B: kälymiye
Gothic: 𐌷𐌻𐌰𐌹𐌽 (hlain)
Old Norse: hlein
Albanian: qye
*ḱlep- to steal Latin: clepō
Ancient Greek: κλέπτω (kléptō)
Old Armenian: գող (goł)
Gothic: 𐌷𐌻𐌹𐍆𐌰𐌽 (hlifan)
Old Irish: clúain
Old Prussian: auklipts
Lithuanian: slė̃pti
Latvian: slēpt
*ḱlew- clean Latin: cloāca
Ancient Greek: κλύδων (klúdōn)
Gaulish: Cluad
Old English: hlūttor
Lithuanian: šluoti
Latvian: slaumi
Russian: слеза́ (slezá)
Welsh: clir
Old High German: hlūttar
German: lauter
Gothic: 𐌷𐌻𐌿𐍄𐍂𐍃 (hlūtrs)
Old Norse: hlér
Old Church Slavonic: сльза (slĭza)
*ḱlew- to hear Latin: clueō
Gaulish: clu
Ancient Greek: κλέος (kléos)
Illyrian: *cleves
Lithuanian: klausýti, šlovė̃
Latvian: klausīt
Old Church Slavonic: слово (slovo)
Russian: сло́во (slóvo)
Sanskrit: श्रु (śru), शृणोति (śṛṇoti)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬎𐬭𐬎𐬥𐬀𐬊𐬌𐬙𐬌 (surunaoiti)
Old High German: hlūt
German: laut
Old English: hlūd
English: loud
Tocharian A: klots, klāw
Tocharian B: klautso, klāw, klyos
Old Norse: hljóðr
Gothic: 𐌷𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸 (hliuþ)
Old Armenian: լու (lu)
Albanian: quaj, quhem
Polish: słowo
Welsh: clod, clywed
Old Irish: ro·cluinethar, cloth
*ḱon- shell Latin: congius
Ancient Greek: κόγχος (kónkhos)
Sanskrit: शङ्ख (śaṅkhá)
*ḱubʰ- shoulder Latin: cubitus
Albanian: sup
Old High German: huf
German: Hüfte
Old English: hype
English: hip
Ancient Greek: κύβος (kúbos)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬎𐬞𐬙𐬌 (supti)
Sanskrit: शुप्ति (śúpti)
Gothic: 𐌷𐌿𐍀𐍃 (hups)
Welsh: gogof
Persian: شانه (šāne)
*ḱwen- holy Lithuanian: šventas
Latvian: svinēt
Russian: свято́й (svjatój)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬞𐬀𐬥𐬌𐬌𐬀𐬵 (spaniiah)
Gothic: 𐌷𐌿𐌽𐍃𐌻 (hunsl)
Polish: święty
Old Prussian: swints
Old Norse: hunsl
Old English: hūsel
English: housel
Old Church Slavonic: свѧтъ (svętŭ)

kEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*kal- handsome Ancient Greek κάλλος (kállos); Sanskrit कल्य (kalya)
*keh₂n- to sing Old English hen; English hen; Old High German hano; German Hahn; Ancient Greek καναχέω (kanakhéō); Gothic 𐌷𐌰𐌽𐌰 (hana); Old Irish canaid; Kurdish xwéndin; Latin canō; Persian آواز خواندن (āvāz xāndan); Russian каню́к (kanjúk); Old Norse hani, hœna; Umbrian [script needed] (kanetu); Welsh canu
*kant- corner Gaulish kantem; Ancient Greek κανθός (kanthós); Latin cantus; Lithuanian kampas; Polish kant, kąt; Russian кут (kut)
*kat- cub Old Irish cadla; Latin catulus; Old Norse haðna; Russian котиться (kotitʹsja); Umbrian [script needed] (katel)
*ked- to fume Ancient Greek κέδρος (kédros); Latvian kadags; Lithuanian kadagỹs; Old Church Slavonic кадило (kadilo); Old Prussian kadegis; Russian чад (čad); Sanskrit कद्रु (kadru)
*kel- glue Ancient Greek κόλλα (kólla); Lithuanian klijai; Polish klej; Russian клей (klej)
*ke(n)g- hook Old English hōc; English hook; Old High German hâco; German Haken; Old Irish ailcheng; Lithuanian kengė; Persian چنگ (čang); Old Norse haki, hǫnk; Russian ко́готь (kógotʹ)
*kenk- kneecap Old English hēla; English heel; Latvian cinksla; Lithuanian kenkle; Old Norse hǽll; Sanskrit कङ्काल (kaṅkāla)
*ker- cornel Albanian thanë; Ancient Greek κράνεια (kráneia); Latin cornus
*kerp- to pluck Old English hærfest; English harvest, harrow; Old High German hwerban; German werben; Gothic 𐍈𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌱𐌰𐌽 (ƕairban); Ancient Greek καρπός (karpós); Hittite [script needed] (karpinaš); Old Irish cirrid; Irish ciorraigh, corrán; Latin carpō; Lithuanian kirpti; Old Church Slavonic чрѣпъ (črěpŭ); Old Norse hverfa; Sanskrit कृपाण (kṛpāṇa); Tocharian A kārp; Tocharian B kärp; Welsh par
*klen- maple Ancient Macedonian [script needed] (klinotrokhon); Old English hlin; English linn; Lithuanian klevas; Latvian kļava; Old Norse hlynr; Polish klon; Russian клён (kljon); Welsh celyn
*knid- louse Albanian thërijë, thëni; Old Armenian անիծ (anic); Old English hnitu; English nit; Old High German hniz; German Nisse; Ancient Greek κονίς (konís); Old Irish sned; Latvian gnīda; Old Norse gnit; Polish gnida; Russian гнида (gnida); Welsh nedd
*kob- to succeed Old English gehæp; English happen; Gaulish Vercobius; Old Irish cob; Old Church Slavonic кобь (kobĭ); Old Norse happ; Russian кобь (kobʹ); Tocharian A akappi
*krem- onion Old English hramsan; English ramson; Ancient Greek κρόμιον (krómion); Old Irish craim; Scottish Gaelic creamh; Latvian cermaukša, cērmūkslis; Lithuanian kermušė; Russian черемша́ (čeremšá); Welsh craf
*krewh₂- blood Avestan 𐬑𐬭𐬏𐬎𐬎𐬀 (xrūuua); Old English hrēaw; English raw; Old High German hrāo; German roh; Ancient Greek κρέας (kréas); Irish cró; Latin cruor; Lithuanian kraũjas; Sanskrit क्रविस् (kravis); Latvian krevele; Old Church Slavonic крꙑ (kry); Old Norse hrár; Old Prussian crauyo; Polish krew; Russian кровь (krovʹ); Welsh crau
*krey- to move, to separate Ancient Greek κρίνω (krínō); Latin cernō, cribrum; Old Saxon hrīnan; Gothic 𐌷𐍂𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍃 (hrains); Old Irish ara·chrin; Welsh crynu
*ksweyd- milk Avestan 𐬑𐬱𐬎𐬎𐬍𐬛 (xšuuīd); Latvian sviests; Lithuanian sviestas; Sanskrit क्ष्विद्यति (kṣvidyati)
*kwat- sour Albanian cos; Old English hwaþerian; Gothic 𐍈𐌰𐌸𐍉 (ƕaþō); Latin cāseus; Latvian kūsāt; Old Church Slavonic квасъ (kvasŭ); Polish kwas; Russian квас (kvas); Sanskrit क्वथ (kvatha)
*kwep- to boil Albanian kapit; Gothic 𐌰𐍆𐍈𐌰𐍀𐌾𐌰𐌽 (afƕapjan); Ancient Greek καπνός (kapnós); Hittite [script needed] (kup); Latin cupiō; Latvian kvēpēt; Lithuanian kvepėti; Old Church Slavonic кꙑпѣти (kypěti); Old Norse hvap; Old Prussian kupsins; Russian кипе́ть (kipétʹ); Sanskrit कुप्यति (kupyati); Tocharian A kāp; Tocharian B kāp

Edit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*kʷeh₂s- to cough Albanian kollë; Old English hwōsta; Old High German huosto; German Husten; Irish casacht; Kamviri [script needed] (kâsa); Latvian kāsēt; Lithuanian kosėti; Polish kaszleć; Russian ка́шлять (kášljatʹ); Tocharian B kosi; Old Norse hósta; Sanskrit कसाते (kasāte); Welsh pas
*kʷel- to turn
wheel
Ancient Greek πόλος (pólos), πέλομαι (pélomai), πέλω (pélō), κύκλος (kúklos); Latin colō; Tocharian A kukäl; Tocharian B kokale; Sanskrit चक्र (cakrá); Russian колесо́ (kolesó); Old English hwēol; English wheel; Old Persian [script needed] (čarka); Persian چرخ (čarx); Old Irish cul, búachaill; Old Prussian kelan; Ossetian цалх (calx); Polish koło; Avestan 𐬗𐬀𐬑𐬭𐬀 (caxra), 𐬗𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (caraiti); Albanian sjell; Old Norse hjól, hvel; Lithuanian kẽlias, kãklas; Luwian [script needed] (kaluti-); Welsh ymochel, dymchwel, bochel
*kʷyeh₁- quiet Latin quiēs; Old Norse hvíla; Old English hwil; English while; Old High German hwila; German Weile; Gothic 𐍈𐌴𐌹𐌻𐌰 (ƕeila); Old Church Slavonic почити (počiti); Russian почить (počitʹ); Sanskrit चिरम् (ciram); Avestan 𐬱𐬁𐬌𐬙𐬌𐬱 (šāitiš); Old Persian [script needed] (šiyātiš); Persian شاه (šāh); Lycian [script needed] (tezi); Tocharian B śāte; Polish odpoczywać; Old Armenian հանգչիմ (hangčʿim); Lithuanian tylus
*kʷreyh₂- to buy Sanskrit क्रीणाति (krīṇā́ti); Lithuanian kraitis; Latvian kriens; Old Irish crenaid; Russian кренуть (krenutʹ); Tocharian A kuryar; Persian خریدن (xarīdan); Tocharian B kärys; Ancient Greek ἐπριάμην (epriámēn); Welsh prynu

lEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*laks- salmon Old English: leax
Old High German: lahs
German: Lachs
Latvian: lasis
Lithuanian: lašiša
Old Norse: lax
Old Prussian: lalasso
Tocharian A: laks
Tocharian B: läks
Polish: łosoś
Russian: лосось (lososʹ)
*las- eager Albanian: lus
Ancient Greek: λιλαίομαι (lilaíomai)
Irish: lainn
Latin: lascīvus
Lithuanian: lokšnus
Russian: ласка (laska)
Sanskrit: लषति (laṣati)
*lat- swamp Gaulish: Arelate
Old High German: letto
German: Letten
Ancient Greek: λάταξ (látax)
Old Irish: lathach
Irish: lathach
Latvian: Late
Lithuanian: Latupė
Welsh: llaid
*leb- lip Old English: lippa
English: lip
German: Lippe
Old High German: lefs
German: Lefze
Kurdish: léw
Latin: labĭum
Lithuanian: lūpa
Persian: lab
Russian: лобзать (lobzatʹ)
Welsh: llefaru
*legʰ- to lie down Albanian: lagtë, lagje
Old English: lecgen
English: lie
Gaulish: legasit
Old High German: liggan
German: liegen
Gothic: 𐌻𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 (ligan)
Ancient Greek: λέχομαι (lékhomai)
Old Irish: lige
Irish: luí
Latin: lectus
Latvian: lagača
Lithuanian: lagaminas
Old Church Slavonic: лєжати (ležati)
Old Norse: liggja
Polish: leżeć
Russian: лежать (ležatʹ)
Tocharian A: lake
Tocharian B: leke
Welsh: lle, gwely
*leh₂w- to acquire Old English: lēan
English: loan
Old High German: lōn
German: Lohn
Gothic: 𐌻𐌰𐌿𐌽 (laun)
Ancient Greek: λεία (leía)
Old Irish: lúag, fo·lud
Polish: łowić
Latin: lucrum
Lithuanian: lavinti
Old Church Slavonic: ловъ (lovŭ)
Old Norse: laun
Russian: ловить (lovitʹ)
Sanskrit: लोत (lota)
Welsh: llawen
*leh₂w- to pour
wash
Albanian: laj
Old Armenian: լոգանամ (loganam)
Old English: lēaþor
English: lather, lye, lave
Old High German: louga
German: Lauge
Ancient Greek: λοῦσις (loûsis)
Hittite: [script needed] (lahhu-)
Old Irish: lóathar, lúaith
Latin: lavō
Old Norse: laug
Welsh: luddw
*leh₃p- cow Albanian: lopë
Latvian: luops
*lendʰ- loin
kidney
Old English: lenden
Old High German: lenti
German: Lende
Latin: lumbus
Old Norse: lend
Russian: лядвие (ljadvije)
*lewbʰ- to love Albanian: lum, laps
Old English: lufu
English: love
Old High German: liob
German: Liebe
Gothic: 𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌱𐌰𐌽 (liuban)
Latin: lubet, libido
Lithuanian: liaupsė
Polish: lubić
Old Church Slavonic: любꙑ (ljuby)
Old Norse: ljúfr
Oscan: [script needed] (loufit)
Russian: любить (ljubitʹ)
Sanskrit: लुभ्यति (lubhyati)
*lewǵ- to break Albanian: lungë
Old Armenian: լոյծ (loyc)
Avestan: 𐬟𐬭𐬀-𐬎𐬭𐬎𐬑𐬙𐬌 (fra-uruxti)
Old English: tōlūcan
German: Lücke, Luke
Ancient Greek: λυγρός (lugrós)
Old Irish: lucht
Latin: lūgeō
Latvian: lauzt
Lithuanian: láužti
Sanskrit: रुजति (rujati)
Welsh: llwyth
*lewgʰ- to tell a lie Old English: lyge
English: lie
Old High German: liogan
German: lügen
Gothic: 𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌲𐌰𐌽 (liugan)
Old Irish: luige
Lithuanian: lugoti
Old Church Slavonic: лъгати (lŭgati)
Old Norse: ljúga
Polish: łgać
Russian: лгать (lgatʹ)
Welsh: llu
*lewk- bright
light
Albanian: gloq
Old Armenian: լոյս (loys), լուսին (lusin)
Avestan: 𐬭𐬀𐬊𐬗𐬀𐬥𐬙 (raocant)
Old English: lēoht
English: light
Gaulish: leux
Old High German: lioht
German: licht
Gothic: 𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌷𐌰𐌸 (liuhaþ)
Ancient Greek: λευκός (leukós)
Hittite: [script needed] (lalukkes)
Old Irish: loscaid
Irish: loisc
Kamviri: [script needed] (luka), [script needed] (ṛuč)
Latin: lūceō, lūx, lūna
Latvian: lauks
Lithuanian: lauka
Luwian: [script needed] (luha-)
Lycian: 𐊍𐊒𐊄𐊀 (luga)
Old Church Slavonic: лоуча (luča)
Old Norse: leygr
Old Prussian: lauxnos
Oscan: Lúvkis
Russian: луч (luč)
Sanskrit: रोचते (rocate)
Tocharian A: luk-
Umbundu: Vuvçis
Welsh: llug, llewych
*lewk- lynx Old Armenian: լուսանունք (lusanunkʿ)
Old High German: luhs
German: Luchs
Ancient Greek: λύγξ (lúnx)
Latvian: lūsis
Lithuanian: lūšis
Middle Irish: lug
Old English: lox
Old Prussian: luysis
Polish: ryś
Russian: рысь (rysʹ)
*ley- to pour Albanian: lyse, lise
Gothic: 𐌻𐌴𐌹𐌸𐌿 (leiþu)
Ancient Greek: λείβω (leíbō)
Hittite: [script needed] (lilái-)
Old Irish: lie
Kurdish: rijyan
Latin: libō
Lithuanian: lieti, lytus
Old Church Slavonic: лити (liti)
Old Prussian: isliuns
Polish: lać
Russian: лить (litʹ)
Sanskrit: रियति (riyati)
Welsh: llifo, lliant
*leyǵʰ- to lick Old Armenian: լիզեմ (lizem)
Avestan: 𐬭𐬀𐬉𐬰𐬀𐬙𐬈 (raēzate)
Old English: liccian
English: lick
Old High German: leckôn
German: lecken
Gothic: 𐌱𐌹𐌻𐌰𐌹𐌲𐍉𐌽 (bilaigōn)
Ancient Greek: λείχω (leíkhō)
Kurdish: lésínewe
Old Irish: lígid
Kamviri: liza
Latin: lingō, ligguriō
Latvian: laizīt
Lithuanian: laižyti
Old Persian: [script needed] (lēsēdan)
Polish: lizać
Old Norse: sleikja
Russian: лизать (lizatʹ)
Sanskrit: लेढि (leḍhi)
Welsh: llyo
*leyg- to jump Old English: lācan
English: lark
Old High German: leih
German: Leich
Gothic: 𐌻𐌰𐌹𐌺𐍃 (laiks)
Ancient Greek: ἐλελίζω (elelízō)
Old Irish: loíg
Irish: laogh
Lithuanian: láigyti, liuoksėti
Old Norse: leikr
Old Persian: [script needed] (ālēxtan)
Sanskrit: रेजति (rejati)
*leykʷ- to leave Albanian: le, la
Old Armenian: լքանեմ (lkʿanem)
Avestan: 𐬭𐬀𐬈𐬑𐬥𐬀𐬵 (raexnah)
Old English: lǣnan
English: lend
Old High German: līhan
German: leihen
Gothic: 𐌻𐌴𐌹𐍈𐌰𐌽 (leiƕan)
Ancient Greek: λείπω (leípō)
Old Irish: léicid
Latin: linquō
Latvian: likt
Lithuanian: likti
Old Norse: ljá
Old Prussian: polijcki
Old Persian: [script needed] (rēxtan)
Russian: олек (olek)
Sanskrit: रिणक्ति (riṇakti)

mEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*mak- pouch Lith. maišas, Ltv. maks, Ir. mén/, Welsh megin, Gm. mago/Magen, Eng. maga/maw, ON magi, OCS mosina, Russ. мошна (mošna), Polish moszna, Old Prussian dantimax
*mat- mattock Lat. mateola; metere Skr. मत्य (matya), Russ. мотыга (motyga), Polish motyka, Gm. modela, 'Welsh' medi
*med- measure, consider Lat. meditārī; medērī, Welsh meddwl, Gk. μέδω (médō), ON meta, Eng. metan/mete; ǣmtig/empty, Arm. միտ (mit), Skr. मस्ति (masti), Av. azdā, Pers. azdā/, Umbrian meřs, Oscan meddiss, Av. midiur/, Toch. mem/maim, Goth. mitan, Gm. mezzan/messen
*meǵ- great Gk. μέγας (mégas), Lat. magnus, Arm. մեծ (mec), Gaul. Magiorīx, Alb. madh, Skr. महयति (mahayati), Toch. māk/mākā, Goth. mikils, Phryg. meka-, Eng. micil/much, ON mikill, Av. mazant, Pers. mazant/meh, Hitt. makkes; mekkish Ir. maige/, Welsh Maclgwn, Gm. mihhil/— Kurd. mezin
*megʰ- to be able Pers. magus/, Lith. magėti, Ltv. megt, Eng. meaht/might; mæg/may, OCS mogǫ, Gm. magan/mögen, Polish mogę, ON mega, Russ. мочь (moč'), Skr. मघ (magha), Toch. mokats/, Gk. μῆχος (mêkhos), Goth. magan, Arm. մարթանք (martʿankʿ)
*meldʰ- lightning Old Prussian mealde, Lith. milna, Russ. молния (molnija), ON myln; Mjollnir, Welsh mellt; mellen
*melh₂- to grind, rub, break up OCS melję, Russ. мелю (melju), Lith. malti, Ltv. malt, Toch. malyw-/mely-, Eng. melo/meal, Alb. miell, Arm. մալեմ (malem), Gk. μύλη (múlē), Proto-Germ. melwą, Goth. malan, ON mala, Gm. malan/mahlen, Lat. molere, Umbrian kumaltu, Welsh malu, Ir. melim/meilim, Hitt. malla, Polish mleć. Urdu : ملنا،malna /məlna/, مالش,malɪsh /maləsh/,ملائم، molaɪm /mʊla.ɪm/
*melk- wet->milk Lith. malkas, Ltv. malks, Gk. μέλκιον (mélkion), OCS mlĕko, Russ. молоко (moloko), Polish mleko
*men- mind Gk. μένος (ménos), Lat. mēns, Skr. मनस् (manas), Av. manah, Eng. gemynd/mind, Goth. muns, ON minni; man, Gm. minna/Minne, Lith. mintis, Ltv. minēt, Old Prussian mēntimai, OCS mineti, Russ. мнить (mnit'), Alb. mund, Pers. mainyāhay/, Toch. mnu/mañu, Ir. do-moiniur/; dermet/dearmad, Welsh cof, Arm. իմանամ (imanam)
*mer- to die Lat. mortŭus, OCS mrĭtvŭ, Russ. мереть (meret'), Lith. mirti, Ltv. mirt, Skr. मरति (marati), Av. miryeite, Arm. մեռանիմ (meṙanim), Gk. βροτός (brotós) < *μροτός (*mrotos), Eng. morþor/murder, Gm. mord/Mord, ON morð, Goth. maurþr, Gaul. marvos, Kamviri me, Osset. марын (maryn), Polish mor/martwy/umrzeć, Ir. marb/marbh, Welsh marw, Pers. amariyata/mordan, Hitt. mer, Kurd. mirin, Alb. mërshë
*mey- small Hitt. meiu-, Lat. minuere, Gk. μείων (meíōn), OCS mĭnii, Russ. менее (menee), Gm. min/minder, Goth. mins, ON minnr, Skr. मिनाति (mināti), Oscan menvum, Toch. /maiwe, Eng. /minnow, Luw. mawa, Ir. min/mion
*mey- to change Lat. mūnus, Eng. gemǣne/mean, Gm. gimeini/gemein, Goth. gamains, Skr. मयते (mayate); मेनि (meni), OCS mĕna, Russ. менять (menjat'), Lith. mainyti, Ltv. mains, Ir. móin/, Welsh mwyn, Polish zmiana, Av. maēni, Hitt. immiya-
*mon- neck Skr. मन्या (manyā), Lat. monīle; eminere Eng. manu/mane, Gm. mana/Mähne, ON mǫn, Ir. muin/muin, Gk. mannon, Russ. монисто (monisto), Welsh mwng; mwnwgl, Gaul. maniakēs, OCS monisto, Av. manaothri
*mor- blackberry Gk. μόρον (móron), Arm. մոր (mor), Lat. mōrum, Hitt. muri, Ir. smér/smeur, Welsh mwyaren

nEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*(s)neh₂- swim *néH₂-u- "ship": Skr. नौ (nāu), Ir. nau/, Gk. ναῦς (naûs), Lat. nāvis, Av. navāza, Pers. nāviyā/nav, Arm. նաւ (naw), ON nōr, Osset. нау (nau)/науӕ (nauæ), Alb. anije, Welsh noe, Eng. nōwend/—
*nem- to allot/distribute Lat. numerus, Ir. nem/nimh, MIr. nos, Gm. neman/nehmen, Gk. νέμω (némō), Goth. niman, ON nema, Lith. núomas, Ltv. nuôma, Eng. niman/numb, Av. nəmah, Toch. /ñemek, Russ. немой (nemoj), Alb nëmë/namë
*neḱ- dead person, death Skr. नश्यति (naśyati), Av. nasyeiti, Gk. νεκρός (nekrós), Lith. našlys, Lat. nex, Toch. näk/näk, Ir. éc/eug, Welsh angeu, ON Naglfar
*neygʷ- to wash Lat. noegeum, Ir. nigim/nighim, ON nykr, Gm. nihhus/Nix, Gk. νίζω (nízō), Skr. नेनेक्ति (nenekti), Welsh enneint, Eng. nicor/
*neyk- to winnow Lith. niekoti, Ltv. niekāt, Gk. λικμάω (likmáō), Welsh nithio

pEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*peg- breast Sanskrit: पक्ष (pakṣá)
Latin: pectus
Latvian: paksis
Russian: пах (pax)
Tocharian A: päśśäṃ
Tocharian B: päścane
Old Irish: ucht
*ped- to walk
stumble
English: foot
Ancient Greek: πούς (poús), πέδον (pédon), πεζός (pezós)
Sanskrit: पद् (pad), पद (padá)
Latin: pēs, pēior, pessimus, impediō, oppidum, peccātum
*peh₂- to protect Sanskrit: पाति (pā́ti), पातृ (pātṛ́)
Tocharian A: pās
Tocharian B: pāsk
Ancient Greek: πῶυ (pôu), πῶμα (pôma), ποιμήν (poimḗn)
Latin: pāstum
Old High German: fōtar
German: Futter
Old English: fōda, ‎fōdor
English: food, fodder
Lithuanian: piemuõ
Gothic: 𐍆𐍉𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽 (fōdjan), 𐍆𐍉𐌳𐍂 (fōdr)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬁𐬌𐬙𐬌 (pāiti)
Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎱𐎠𐎺𐎠 (xšaçapāvā)
Persian: پاییدن (pāyīdan)
Old Norse: fœða, fóðr
Old Armenian: հաւրան (hawran)
*peh₃- to drink Russian: пить (pitʹ)
Sanskrit: पिबति (píbati)
Ancient Greek: πῑ́νω (pī́nō)
Albanian: pi
Old Irish: ibid
Welsh: yfed
Lithuanian: puota
Old Prussian: poieiti
Hittite: [script needed] (pas)
Thracian: [script needed] (pinon)
Old Armenian: ըմպեմ (əmpem)
Latin: bibō
Umbrian: [script needed] (puni)
Old Church Slavonic: пити (piti)
Polish: pić
*peḱ- to pluck *peḱu- (cattle)
Ancient Greek: πόκος (pókos), πέκω (pékō)
Latin: pecu, pecus
Lithuanian: pekus
Old Prussian: pecku
Sanskrit: पशु (páśu)
Kurdish: pas
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬯𐬎 (pasu)
Gothic: 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿 (faihu)
Old English: feoh
English: fee
Old Norse:
Old High German: fihu
German: Vieh
Old Armenian: ասր (asr)
*pekʷ- to cook
become ripe
Latin: coquō
Albanian: pjek
Russian: печь (pečʹ)
Sanskrit: पचति (pácati)
Tocharian A: päk
Tocharian B: päk
Welsh: pobi
Ancient Greek: πέσσω (péssō)
Kamviri: [script needed] (puk)
Lithuanian: kepti
Latvian: cept
Old Church Slavonic: пекѫ (pekǫ)
Polish: piec
Persian: پختن (pukhtan)
Old Prussian: pektis
Old English: āfigen
*pel- flour Old Prussian: pelwo
Latin: palea
Sanskrit: पलाल (palāla)
Lithuanian: pelus
Latvian: pelus
Russian: поло́ва (polóva)
*pel- gray Albanian: plak
Old Armenian: ալիք (alikʿ)
Sanskrit: पलित (palitá)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬊𐬎𐬭𐬎𐬱𐬀 (pouruša)
Persian: [script needed] (pūrū)
Kurdish: pêl
Ancient Macedonian: [script needed] (pellus)
Ancient Greek: πολιός (poliós), πελιτνός (pelitnós)
Latin: palleō, pullus
Irish: liath
Welsh: llwyd
Lithuanian: pelekas
Latvian: pelēks
Old Prussian: pelē
Old Church Slavonic: плавъ (plavŭ)
Russian: пелёсый (peljósyj)
Polish: płowy
Old Norse: fǫlr
Old High German: falo
German: falb
Old English: fealu
English: fallow
*pel- skin Ancient Greek: πέλᾰς (pélas), πέλμᾰ (pélma)
Latin: pellis
Russian: пелена́ (pelená)
Gothic: 𐍆𐌹𐌻𐌻 (fill)
Old High German: fël
German: Fell
Old English: filmen
English: film
Old Norse: fjall
Lithuanian: palà, plėnė
Latvian: plēne
Old Prussian: pleynis
*pent- road Latin: pōns
Ancient Greek: πόντος (póntos)
Sanskrit: पथिन् (páthin)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬥𐬙𐬀̊ (pantå)
Russian: путь (putʹ)
Gothic: 𐍆𐌹𐌽𐌸𐌰𐌽 (finþan)
Old English: findan
English: find
Old High German: findan
German: finden
Old Norse: finna
Old Armenian: հուն (hun)
Kamviri: [script needed] (put)
Old Prussian: pentes
Old Irish: étain, áitt
Old Church Slavonic: пѫть (pǫtĭ)
Old Persian: [script needed] (paθim)
*per- go English: from, fare, firth, ford
Norwegian: fjǫrðr
German: fahren
Ancient Greek: πρό (pró), πείρω (peírō)
Sanskrit: पिपर्ति (piparti)
Latin: portus, experior
*perd- to fart Russian: перде́ть (perdétʹ)
Polish: pierdzieć
Sanskrit: पर्दते (párdate)
Lithuanian: persti
Latvian: pirst
Phrygian: [script needed] (perdomai)
Albanian: pjerth, pordhë
Old English: feortan
English: fart
Old High German: ferzan
German: furzen
Old Norse: freta
Ancient Greek: πέρδομαι (pérdomai)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬜𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (pərəδaiti)
Welsh: rhech
*perḱ- rib Lithuanian: pìršys
Sanskrit: पर्शु (párśu)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬯𐬎 (parəsu)
Ossetian фарс (fars)
Old Church Slavonic: пръси (prŭsi)
Albanian: parz, parzëm
*pers- dust Tocharian A: pärs
Tocharian B: pärs
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬭𐬱𐬎𐬫𐬀 (paršuya)
Lithuanian: purkšti
Latvian: pārsla
Old Norse: fors
Hittite: [script needed] (pappars)
Sanskrit: पृषत् (pṛ́ṣat)
Old Church Slavonic: прахъ (praxŭ)
Russian: прах (prax)
*pes- penis Ancient Greek: πέος (péos)
Latin: pēnis
Old High German: faselt
German: Fasel
Old Norse: fǫsull
Old English: fæsl
Sanskrit: पसस् (pásas)
*pet- to open arms Ancient Greek: πετάννῡμι (petánnūmi)
Latin: pateō, pandō
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬚𐬀𐬥𐬀 (paθana)
Old Prussian: pettis
Lithuanian: petỹs
Old English: fæðm
English: fathom
Old Norse: faðmr
Faroese: favnur
Old High German: fadam, fademōn
German: Faden
Scottish Gaelic: aitheamh
Welsh: edau
Albanian: pjetem
Hittite: [script needed] (pattar)
*peth₂- to fly Old English: feþer
English: feather
Old High German: fedara
German: Feder
Old Norse: fjǫðr
Latin: petō, penna, accipiter
Sanskrit: पतति (pátati)
Hittite: [script needed] (pattar)
Ancient Greek: πτερόν (pterón), πίπτω (píptō), πέτομαι (pétomai), ὠκῠπέτης (ōkupétēs)
Welsh: adar, edn
Old Persian: [script needed] (udapatatā)
Old Armenian: թիռ (tʿiṙ)
Old Irish: ette, én
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬙𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (pataiti)
Latvian: pētīt
Albanian: shpendë
*pleh₁- fill Old English and English: full
Latin: pleō, plēnus
Ancient Greek: πολύς (polús), πίμπλημι (pímplēmi)
Sanskrit: पिपर्ति (piparti), पृणाति (pṛnā́ti)
*pleh₂- flat Hittite: [script needed] (palḫiš)
Old Armenian: հող (hoł), լայն (layn)
Lithuanian: plónas, platùs
Latvian: plãns, plañdît
Old Prussian: plonis
Old Irish: lían, lethan, lethaid
Welsh: lleyn, llwyn, lledu
Old English: feld
English: field, flat
Old High German: feld
German: Feld
Ancient Greek: πλᾰτύς (platús), πλανάω (planáō), πλάσσω (plássō)
Sanskrit: पृथु (pṛthú)
Avestan: 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬀𐬵 (fraθah)
Latin: plānus
Russian: пло́ский (plóskij)
Old Church Slavonic: плоскъ (ploskŭ)
*pleh₂k- to hit Latin: plangō, plāga
Old English: flōc, flōcan
English: fluke
Ancient Greek: πληγή (plēgḗ), πλήσσω (plḗssō)
Old Church Slavonic: плакати (plakati)
Russian: пла́кать (plákatʹ, to weep)
Lithuanian: plakti
Old Irish: lén, léssaim
Albanian: ploje
Gothic: 𐍆𐌻𐍉𐌺𐌰𐌽 (flōkan)
Old Norse: flókinn
Old High German: fluoh
German: Fluch
*pleḱ- to plait/braid Ancient Greek: πλέκω (plékō), πλοκή (plokḗ)
Latin: plectō, plicō, simplex
Old Norse: flétta
Gothic: 𐍆𐌻𐌰𐌷𐍄𐍉 (flahtō)
Old High German: flehtan
German: flechten
Old English: fleohtan, fleax
English: flax
Sanskrit: प्रश्न (praśna)
Avestan: 𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬰𐬀𐬙𐬊 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬱𐬥𐬆𐬨 (ərəzato frašnəm)
Old Church Slavonic: плести (plesti)
Russian: плести́ (plestí)
Albanian: plah, plaf
Lithuanian: pinti
*pnew- to breathe Ancient Greek: πνεῦμα (pneûma)
Old Norse: fnýsa
Old English: fnēosan
English: sneeze
Old High German: fnehan
*psten- breast Ancient Greek: στῆθος (stêthos)
Old Armenian: ստին (stin)
Sanskrit: स्तन (stána)
Avestan: 𐬟𐬱𐬙𐬁𐬥𐬀 (fštāna)
Lithuanian: spenys
Latvian: spenis
Old Norse: speni
Old High German: spunni
German: Spanferkel
Irish: sine
Old Prussian: spenis
Persian: پستان (pestān)
English: spean
*preyH- to like Sanskrit: प्रीणाति (prīṇā́ti)
Old Church Slavonic: прѣѭ (prějǫ)
Russian: прижать (prižatʹ)
Polish: przać (Silesian regionalism)
Latvian: prieks
Ancient Greek: πρᾶος (prâos)
Avestan: 𐬟𐬭𐬁 (frā)
Gothic: 𐍆𐍂𐌴𐌹𐍃 (freis), 𐍆𐍂𐌹𐌾𐍉𐌽 (frijōn)
Old English: frēond
English: free, friend
Old High German: friunt
German: Freund
Old Norse: Frigg
Welsh: rhydd
Old Irish: ríar.
*preḱ- to ask
to pray
Latin: poscō
Tocharian A: prak-, pärk-
Tocharian B: prek-
Sanskrit: पृच्छति (pṛccháti)
Old Armenian: հարց (harcʿ)
Old Church Slavonic: просити (prositi)
Russian: проси́ть (prosítʹ)
Lithuanian: piršti
Latvian: pirstlis
Old High German: frāga, forscōn
German: fragen, forschen
Old English: frignan
Old Norse: fregna
Gothic: 𐍆𐍂𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌽𐌰𐌽 (fraihnan)
Old Persian: [script needed] (fraθ-)
Persian: پرسیدن (pursīdan)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬯𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (pərəsaiti)
Oscan: [script needed] (aparsam)
Middle Welsh: erchi, archaf
Old Irish: arco
Umbrian: [script needed] (pepurkurent)
*prew- to jump Russian: пры́гать (prýgatʹ)
Sanskrit: प्रवते (pravate)
Old High German: frosc
German: Frosch
Old English: frocga
English: frog
Old Norse: froskr
Lithuanian: sprugstu, sprugti
Albanian: fryj
Persian: پریدن (paredan)
*puHr- wheat Sanskrit: पूर (pūra)
Ancient Greek: πυρός (purós)
Lithuanian: purai
Latvian: pūŗi
Old Prussian: pure
Old English: fyrs
English: furze
Old Church Slavonic: пꙑре (pyre)
Russian: пыре́й (pyréj)
*pulh₂- hair Sanskrit: पुलस्ति (pulastí), पुलक (pulaka)
Old Irish: ul, ulcha
Ancient Greek: πύλιγξ (púlinx), πυλεών (puleṓn)
Kurdish: pûr
Pashto: [script needed] (pal)

rEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*rap- turnip Lat. rapum, OCS repa, Russ. репа (repa), Lith. ropė, Gm. raba/Rübe, Gk. ῥάφυς (rhapus), Polish rzepa
*resg- to plait Lat. restis, Gk. arrikhos, Lith. reksti, Ltv. režģīt, OCS rozga, Russ. розга (rozga), Skr. रज्जु (rajju), Eng. resc/rush, Polish rózga, Arm. ուռի (uṙi), Ir. rúsc/rusg

sEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*(s)mey- to laugh OCS smĕjǫ, Russ. сме́яться (sméjatʹsja), Skr. स्मयते (smayate), Lith. smagintis, Ltv. smaids, Toch. smi/smi, Lat. mīrus, Gk. μεῖδος (meîdos), Ir. míad/, Polish śmiech, Eng. smearcian/smirk
*(s)mer- to remember Eng. murnan/mourn, Skr. स्मरति (smarati), Av. smaraiti, Lat. memor, Ir. airmmert/, Welsh armerth, Gaul. Smerius, Goth. maúrnan, ON Mímir, Gm. mornēn/, Gk. μέρμερος (mérmeros), Arm. մորմոք (mormokʿ), Lith. pamiršti, Kurd. bír
*(s)neh₁- to spin Ltv. snāte, Skr. स्नायति (snāyati), Ir. snáthat/snáthad, Eng. nǣdl/needle, Gm. nādala/Nadel, Goth. 𐌽𐌴𐌸𐌻𐌰 (nēþla), ON nál, Russ. нить (nitʹ), Lat. neō, Gk. νήθω (nḗthō), Welsh nodwydd
*(s)teg- to cover Gk. στέγω (stégō), Lat. tegō, Skr. स्थगति (sthagati), Lith. stogas, Ltv. stags, Ir. tech/teach, Gm. thecken/decken, Eng. þæc/thatch, ON þekja, Russ. стог (stog), Polish stóg, Old Prussian stogis, Umbrian tehteřim, Welsh ty
*(s)teh₂y- to hide Skr. स्तायत् (stāyat), Av. tāyu, Russ. таить (tait'), Ir. táid/, Hitt. tayezzi, Gk. τηΰσιος (tēǘsios)/, Toch. /enestai
*(s)ter- sterile Gk. στεῖρα (steîra), Lat. sterilis, Arm. ստերջ (sterǰ), Alb. shtjerre, Gm. stero/, Skr. स्तरी (starī), Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌹𐍂𐍉 (stairō), Eng. stierc/, Bulg. sterica
*saws- to dry Alb. tha, Lith. sausa, Ltv. sauss, Old Prussian sausā, Eng. sēar/sear, Gm. sōrēn/—, Skr. शुष्यति (śuyati), Av. haoš, Pers. uška/xošk, Russ. сухо́й (suxój), Gk. αὗος (haûos)/, Lat. sūdus
*sed- to sit OCS сѣдѣти (sěděti), Russ. сиде́ть (sidétʹ), Polish siedzieć, Lat. sedeō, Lith. sėdėti, Ltv. sēdēt, Gaul. essedum, Eng. sittan/sit, Gm. sizzan/sitzen; sezzal/, ON sitja, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 (sitan), Gk. ἕζομαι (hézomai)/, Ir. saidim/suidh, Welsh seddu, Skr. सीदति (sīdati), Av. nišaðayeiti, Pers. niyašayadan/nešastan, Arm. նիստ (nist), Old Prussian sīdons, Umbrian sersitu, Toch. sätk/
*seǵʰ- to hold Skr. सहते (sahate), Gk. ἔχω (ékhō), Gm. sigu/Sieg, ON. sigr, Eng. sige/—
*seh₁- to sow Russ. се́ять (séjatʹ); семя (semja), Lith. sėti, Ltv. sēt, Eng. sāwan/sow, Old Prussian semen, OCS сѣти (sěti), Gm. sāen/säen, ON , Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌹𐌰𐌽 (saian), Lat. serere, Umbrian semenies, Polish siać, Welsh hil, Ir. sí/síol, Toch. sāry/, Hitt. sai, Skr. सायक (sāyaka), Umbrian semenies
*seh₁y- to sift Alb. shosh, Lith. sietas, Ltv. siets, Ir. sithlad/síolthughadh, Welsh hidl, ON sáld, Gk. ἠθέω (ēthéō), Russ. си́то (síto), Polish sito, OCS sito
*seh₂g- to seek out Hitt. šak(k), Eng. sǣcan/beseech, Gm. suohhen/suchen, Goth. 𐍃𐍉𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 (sōkjan), ON sǿkja, Gk. ἡγέομαι (hēgéomai), Ir. saigim/, Welsh haeddu, Lat. sagīre
*sekʷ- to follow Lat. sequor, Lith. sekti, Ltv. sekt, Gk. ἕπομαι (hépomai), Ir. sech/seach, Welsh hep, ON seggr, Skr. सचते (sacate), Av. hačaitē, Eng. secg/—, Pers. hačā/, Toch. säk/, Alb. shoh, Gm. beinsegga/
*selp- butter Toch. älyp/alype, Gk. ἔλπος (élpos), Hitt. salpa-, Alb. gjalpë, Skr. सर्पिस् (sarpis), Eng. sealf/salve, Osset. carv/, Pers. /čarbi, Gm. salba/Salbe, Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌻𐌱𐍉𐌽 (salbōn)
*sem- summer Skr. समा (samā), Eng. sumor/summer, Av. ham, Arm. ամառն (amaṙn), Gm. sumar/Sommer, ON sumar, Welsh haf, Ir. samrad/samhradh, Toch. me/māye
*skand- to leap Skr. स्कन्दति (skandati), Gk. σκάνδαλον (skándalon), Ir. scendim/scinn, Lat. scandere
*skap- tool Russ. щепа́ (ščepá), Lith. kapoti, Ltv. kaplis, Gm. skaft/, Gk. σκεπάρνιον (skepárnion), Lat. capus, Pers. /kāfad, Alb. kep, Old Prussian warnaycopo, ON skapt, OCS kopajǫ
*(s)kend- to shine Alb. hënë/hânë, Middle Bret. cann, Welsh cann, Skr. candra
*smek- chin Ir. smech/smeach, Lith. smakras, Ltv. smakrs, Skr. श्मश्रु (śmaśru), Hitt. zamakur, Arm. մաւրուք (mawrukʿ), Alb. mjekër, Lat. maxilla
*sneygʷʰ- (to) snow Lith. sniegas, Ltv. sniegs, Old Prussian snaygis, Russ. снег (sneg), Ir. snechta/sneachta, Skr. स्नेह (sneha), Eng. snāw/snow, Gk. νίφα (nípha), Gm. sneo/Schnee, ON snjór, Goth. 𐍃𐌽𐌰𐌹𐍅𐍃 (snaiws), Polish śnieg, Welsh nyf, Av. snaēža, Toch. /śiñcatstse
*snewdʰ- mist Av. snaoða, Welsh nudd, Gk. νοῦθος (noûthos), Lat. nūbēs
*sp(y)ew- to spit Lat. spuere, Gk. πτύω (ptúō), OCS pljujǫ, Lith. spjauti, Ltv. spļaut, Eng. spiwan/spew, Gm. spīwan/speien, ON spýja, Goth. 𐍃𐍀𐌴𐌹𐍅𐌰𐌽 (speiwan), Skr. ष्ठीवति (hīvati), Av. spāma, Arm. թուք (tʿukʿ), Pers. /tuf, Osset. thu, Russ. плюю (pljuju), Polish pluć
*sperg- sparrow Gm. sperk/sperling, Eng. spearwa/sparrow, Goth. sparwa, ON spǫrr, Toch. pār/pāra-, Gk. sparasion?, Old Prussian spurglis, Pers. /parasto, Lat. parra, Umbrian parfam, Ir. serriach/
*splenǵʰ- spleen Gk. σπλήν (splḗn), Lat. liēn, Ir. selg/sealg, Av. sparazan, Skr. प्लीहन् (plīhan), Lith. blužnis, Old Prussian blusne, Kamviri pu, Arm. փայծաղն (pʿaycałn), OCS slĕzena, Russ. селезёнка (selezjónka), Polish śledziona, Bret. felc'h
*srebʰ- to gulp Lat. sorbēo, Arm. արբենամ (arbenam), Alb. gjerbë, Gk. ῥοφέω (rhophéō), Ir. srub, Lith. srėbti, Ltv. surbt; surbju, Russ. сёрбать (sjórbatʹ), Polish siorbać
*steh₂- to stand Av. hištaiti, Skr. तिष्ठति (tihati), Eng. standan/stand, Lat. stō, Umbrian stahmei, Oscan staíet, Lith. stoti, Ltv. stāt, Old Prussian stacle, OCS stati, Russ. стать (statʹ), Gm. stān/stehen, Polish stać, Phryg. eistani, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌰𐌽 (standan), ON stóð, Fo. standa, Pers. aištata/istādan, Alb. shtuara, Welsh gwastad, Toch. tām/stām, Gk. ἵστημι (hístēmi), Ir. tá/tá, Hitt. išta, Luw. išta-, Arm. ստանամ (stanam), Lyc. ta-
*steygʰ- to stride, to step Alb. shteg, Lith. stigti, Ltv. steigt, Ir. techt/teachd, Welsh taith, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌴𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 (steigan), ON stígan, Eng. stǣger/stair, Gm. stīgan/steigen, Gk. στείχω (steíkhō), Skr. स्तिघ्नोति (stighnoti), Russ. достига́ть (dostigátʹ), Polish ścigać, OCS postigǫnti
*sweh₂d- sweet Eng. swēte/sweet, Gk. ἡδύς (hēdús), Lat. suāvis, Gaul. Suadurīx, Gm. suozi/süss, ON sœtr, Welsh chwant, Ir. sant/, Skr. स्वादु (svādu), Lith. sūdyti, Av. xʷāsta, Goth. 𐍃𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃 (sutis), Toch. swār/swāre
*swey- to whistle Russ. свист (svist), Lith. švilpti, Ltv. svilpiens, Skr. क्ष्वेडति (kveati), Ir. ind fet/fead, Welsh chwythu, Polish świst, Gk. σίζω (sízō)/, Lat. sibāre, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌹𐌲𐌻𐍉𐌽 (swiglōn), Gm. swegala/, Eng. swegalōn/, OCS svistati
*sweyd- sweat Arm. քիրտն (kʿirtn), Alb. djersë, Eng. swǣtan/sweat, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sviedri, Skr. स्वेदते (svedate), Gk. ἱδρόω (hidróō), Lat. sūdor, Gm. sweiz/Schweiss, Welsh chwys, ON sveiti, Av. xvaēda
*swel- to burn Ltv. svelt, Lith. sveltu, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌹𐌻𐍄𐌰𐌽 (swiltan), ON svalr, Eng. swelan, Gk. ἥλιος (hḗlios), Skr. स्वरति (svarati), Toch. slam/sleme
*swep- sleep Lith. sapnas, Skr. स्वप्न (svapna), Lat. somnus, ON svefn, Toch. /pane, Gk. ὕπνος (húpnos), Av. xvafna, Ir. suán/suan, OCS sunu, Russ. сон (son), Arm. քուն (kʿun), Alb. gjumë, Welsh hun, Eng. swefan/—, Pers. /xāb
*swep- to throw Lat. supāre, Skr. स्वपू (svapū), Lith. supti, Ltv. šūpāt, OCS svepiti sę, Russ. сы́пать (sýpatʹ), ON sófl, Polish sypać
*swergʰ- to be ill Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌲𐌰 (saurga), Gm. soraga/Sorge, Skr. सूर्क्षति (sūrkati), Ir. serg/, Lith. sirgti, Ltv. sirgt, Eng. sorg/sorrow, ON sorg, Alb. dergjet, OCS sraga, Russ. сорога (soroga), Toch. särk/sark, Arm. երկն (erkn)
*syuh₁- to sew Skr. सीव्यति (sīvyati), Lat. suere, Eng. seowian/sew, Lith. siūti, Ltv. šūt, Russ. шить (šit'), Polish szyć, ON sýja, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 (siujan), Gk. ὑμήν (ὑμήν), Old Prussian schumeno, Gm. siuwen/Saum, OCS šijǫ, Hitt. suel

tEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*tag- to touch Old English: þaccian
Ancient Greek: τεταγών (tetagṓn)
Gaulish: Taximagulus
Old Irish: taise, tais
Latin: tangō
*tark- to twist Sanskrit: तर्कु (tarkú)
Old Prussian: tarkue
Russian: торок (torok)
Tocharian A: tark
Tocharian B: tärk
Ancient Greek: ἄτρακτος (átraktos)
Latin: torqueō
Old High German: drāhsil
German: drechseln
Albanian: tjerr
Old Irish: torc
Welsh: torri
Old English: þweorh
English: thwart
Polish: troki
*teh₂w- to melt Old Church Slavonic: таѥтъ (tajetŭ)
Russian: та́ять (tájatʹ)
Ossetian: тайын (tajyn)
Old English: þawian
English: thaw
Old High German: thouwen
German: verdauen
Old Armenian: թանամ (tʿanam), թան (tʿan)
Ancient Greek: τήκω (tḗkō)
Latin: tabeō
Old Norse: þeyja
Welsh: tawdd, toddi
Old Irish: tám
Sanskrit: तोय (toya)
Lithuanian: tyras
Latvian: tīrelis
Polish: tajać
*teḱs- to plait Latin: textō
Lithuanian: tašýti
Latvian: tešu
Ancient Greek: τέχνη (tékhnē), τέκτων (téktōn)
Russian: тесла (tesla)
Sanskrit: तक्षति (takṣati), तक्षन् (takṣan)
Avestan: 𐬙𐬀𐬱𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (tašaiti), 𐬙𐬀𐬱𐬀 (taša)
Old Persian: [script needed] (ustašana)
Persian: [script needed] (taš), [script needed] (tožel)
Old Church Slavonic: тешѫ (tešǫ), тесла (tesla)
Hittite: [script needed] (takš)
Old Norse: þexla
Old High German: dehsa
German: Dachs
Irish: tál
Albanian: teshë, tollë
*teng- to think Albanian: tangë (Gheg Albanian: tângë)
Old English: þencan
English: think
Old High German: thenken
German: denken
Latin: tongēo
Oscan: [script needed] (tanginúd)
Old Norse: þekkja
Tocharian A: tuṅk-
Tocharian B: taṅkw-
Gothic: 𐌸𐌰𐌲𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 (þagkjan)
Welsh: tanc
Old Irish: di·thech, for·tach, fortoing
*tep- warm Albanian: ftoh, ftof
Hittite: [script needed] (tapašša)
Old Irish: , teine, timme
Welsh: tân, twym
Old Norse: þefr
Old English: þefian
Old High German: duft
German: Duft, deftig
Sanskrit: तपस् (tápas), तपति (tápati)
Avestan: 𐬙𐬀𐬟𐬥𐬀𐬵 (tafnah), 𐬙𐬁𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (tāpaiti)
Persian: [script needed] (tab), [script needed] (tafte(h))
Latin: tepeō, tepor
Polish: ciepły
Russian: тёплый (tjóplyj)
Old Church Slavonic: теплость (teplostĭ)
*ter- to cross over Ancient Greek: τέρθρον (térthron)
Albanian: shtir
Hittite: [script needed] (tarḫzi)
Sanskrit: तरति (tárati)
Old High German: dremil
Kamviri: [script needed] (târa)
Avestan: 𐬙𐬀𐬭 (tar)
Old Persian: [script needed] (viyatārayāma)
Ossetian: тӕрин (tærin)
Illyrian: *Taros
Armenian: թարմ (tʿarm)
Latin: terminus
Umbrian: [script needed] (termnome)
Oscan: [script needed] (teremenniú)
Old Norse: þrǫmr
*ter- to shake
tremble
*trem-: Albanian: tremb
Ancient Greek: τρέμω (trémō), τρόμος (trómos)
Latin: tremō
Lithuanian: trimti
Latvian: tremt
Tocharian A: träm-
Tocharian B: tremi
*tres-: Avestan: 𐬙𐬭𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬯𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (trərəsaiti)
Ancient Greek: τρέω (tréō)
Old Irish: tarrach
Latin: terreō
Lithuanian: trišu
Latvian: trisēt
Old Church Slavonic: трѧсѫ (tręsǫ)
Sanskrit: त्रसति (trasati)
Russian: трясти́ (trjastí)
*ters- dry Sanskrit: तृष्यति (tṛṣyati)
Avestan: 𐬙𐬀𐬭𐬱𐬎 (taršu), 𐬙𐬀𐬭𐬱𐬥𐬀 (taršna)
Old Armenian: թառամիմ (tʿaṙamim)), թարշամիմ (tʿaršamim)
Ancient Greek: τέρσομαι (térsomai)
Albanian: ter
Latin: terra, torreō
Old Irish: tart, tír
Old English: þurst
English: thirst
Old High German: durri
German: dürr
Gothic: 𐌸𐌰𐌿𐍂𐍃𐌿𐍃 (þaursus)
Old Norse: þurr
Lithuanian: trokšti
Kashmiri: [script needed] (treśiho.t)
*treb- dwelling Latin: trabēs, tribus
Oscan: [script needed] (trííbúm)
Umbrian: [script needed] (tremnu)
Lithuanian: trobà
Latvian: traba
Old English: þorp
English: thorp
Old High German: thorf
German: Dorf
Old Norse: þorp
Ancient Greek: τέρεμνον (téremnon)
Welsh: tref
Middle Irish: treb
*trewd- to press Latin: trūdō
Albanian: tredh, ndrydh
Middle Welsh: cythrud
Middle Irish: trott
Old English: þrēat
English: threat
Old High German: firthriogan
German: verdrießen
Old Norse: þrjóta
Gothic: 𐌿𐍃𐌸𐍂𐌹𐌿𐍄𐌰𐌽 (usþriutan)
Old Church Slavonic: троудъ (trudŭ), троуждѫ (truždǫ)
Russian: труд (trud)

wEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*wayl- wolf Arm. գայլ (gayl) Ir. fáel/faol, Gaul. vail
*webʰ- to weave Eng. wefan/weave Gm. weban/weben, ON vefa, Ir. fí, Welsh gwe, Gk. ὑφή (huphḗ), Pers. baftan/; bāfad, Skr. उभ्नाति (ubhnāti); ūrṇavābhi, Toch. wäp/wāp, -/wpelme, -/yape, Av. ubdaēna, Alb. vej, Hitt. huppai; huppula
*wed- wet *wódr̥ "water": Eng. wæter/water, wet OCS вода (voda), Russ. вода́ (vodá), Gk. ὕδωρ (húdōr), Lat. unda, Lith. vanduo, Ltv. ūdens, Skr. उदन् (udán) , Alb. ujë, Ir. uisce/uisge, Hitt. 𒉿𒀀𒋻 (wa-a-tar), Arm. գետ (get), Toch. wär/war, Umb. utur, Goth. 𐍅𐌰𐍄𐍉 (watō), Welsh gwer, ON vatn, Kashmiri odūr, Thrac. udrēnas, Gm. wazzar/Wasser, Phryg. bedu, Pol. woda, OPruss. wundan
*wedʰ- to lead Russ. веду (vedu), Lith. vesti, Ltv. vads, Ir. fedid/fedim, Av. vāðayeiti, Hitt. uwate, OCS vedǫ, Pol. wieść, Welsh arweddu, OPruss west
*wedʰ- to pledge Lat. vas (g. vadis), Ir. fedid/, Welsh arweddu; dyweddio Goth. 𐍅𐌰𐌳𐌹 (wadi), ON veð, Eng. weddian/wed; weotuma/-, Gm. wetti/Wette, Lith. vadas; vaduoti; vedù; vedẽklė, Ltv. vadot; vedu, OCS vedǫ; voždǫ, Gk. éedna, Hitt. huettiya, Av. vadayeiti; upāvādayeiti; vadū; vadrya, Skt. vadhú
*weǵ- lively Lat. vegeō, Eng. wacan/wake, Skr. वाज (vāja), Av. vazra, Toch. wasir/wasir, Gm. wahhēn/wachen, Goth. 𐍅𐌰𐌺𐌰𐌽 (wakan), ON vaka, Pers. vazrka/buzurg
*weǵʰ- to ride Eng. wegan/weigh, Lat. vehō, Oscan veia, Umbrian ar'veitu, Gk. ἔχω (ékhō)/, Skr. वहति (vahati), Av. vazaiti, Russ. везти́ (veztí), Polish wieźć, Alb. vjedh, Gm. biwegan/bewegen, ON vega, Goth. 𐌲𐌰𐍅𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 (gawigan), Ir. fén/, Welsh gwain, Lith. vežti, Ltv. vest, Old Prussian vessis, Umbrian ařveitu, Gaul. Uecturius, Toch. wkä/yakne, OCS vezǫ
*weh₂dʰ- to go, to wade Lat. vadere; vadare, vadum, ON vaða, Eng. wadan/wade, Gm. watan/waten, Alb. vete
*weh₂t- to blow, inspire Lat. vatēs, Gaul. uāteis, OIr. fáith, Welsh gwawd, ON óðr; Oðinn; Oðinsdagr, Proto-Germanic *Wōdanaz, Skr. अपिवतति (apivatati), Eng. wōð/-; wōd/wood; Wōden/Woden; Wōdnesdæg/Wednesday, Gm. wuot/Wut; Wuotan/Wotan; Wuotanes tac/—, Av. aipivat
*wekʷ- to speak Gk. ἔπος (épos), Skr. वक्ति (vakti), Av. vačah, Gm. giwahanen/erwähnen, Old Prussian wackītwei, Toch. wak/wek, ON váttr, Lat. vōx, Umb. subocau, Ir. foccul/focal; faig; anocht, Welsh gwaethyl, Gaul. Vepolitanos, Hitt. uek
*welh₁- to wish, desire, want Eng. willan/will, Gm wellan/wollen, Goth. 𐍅𐌹𐌻𐌾𐌰𐌽 (wiljan), ON vilja, OCS. voljo; voliti, Russ. во́ля (vólja), Lith. velyti, Welsh gwell, Lat. volo, Gk. ἔλδομαι (éldomai); ἔλπω (élpō), Skt. वृणोति (vṛṇoti) Av. verenav-
*wemh₁- to vomit Lat. vomere, Gk. ἐμέω (eméō)/, Skr. वमति (vamati), Av. vam, Lith. vemti, Ltv. vemt, ON váma, OPruss. wynis, Pers. vātāk
*wer- cover *wer-no- "ram": Skr. उरण (uraṇa), Arm. գառն (gaṙn), Gk. ἀρήν (arḗn), Alb. rrunjë
*werǵ- to do, to work Gk. ἔργον (érgon), Lat. urgere, Eng. wyrcan/work; weorc/work, Gm. werkon/werken; werah/Werk, ON verka; verk, Goth. 𐍅𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 (waurkjan); 𐌲𐌰𐍅𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌺𐌹 (gawaurki), Lith verziu, OCS vragu, Ir. fairged/, Arm. գործ (gorc), Av. vareza, Pers. /barz, Toch. wark/
*werh₃- to speak Lith. vardas, Ltv. vārds, Eng. word/word, Russ. врать (vratʹ), Skr. व्रत (vrata), Av. urvāta, Hitt. ueria, Gk. εἴρω (eírō), Gm. wort/Wort, ON orð, Goth. 𐍅𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌳 (waurd), OPruss. wīrds, OIr. fordat, Umb. uerfalem, OCS vračĭ, Lat. verbum
*wes- to dress Alb. vesh, Eng. werian/wear, Gm. werian/Wehr, Goth. wasjan, ON verja, Lat. vestis, Gk. ἕννυμι (hénnumi), Arm. զգենում (zgenum), Skr. वस्ते (vaste), Av. vastē, Hitt. waš, Toch. wäs/wäs
*wes- to feast Hitt. weši, Lat. vēscor, Av. vastra, Skr. अनुवावसे (anuvāvase), Welsh gwest, Gm. wist/, MIr. feis; dofeotar, Goth. wists, ON vist, Eng. wist/, Lith. švęsti, OCS veselŭ, Pol. wesele
*wet- year Gk. ἔτος (étos)/έτος (étos), Skr. वत्स (vatsa), Eng. weðer/wether, Gm. widar/Widder, Goth. 𐍅𐌹𐌸𐍂𐌿𐍃 (wiþrus), ON veðr, Hitt. witt, Alb. vjet, Ir. fethim/feithim, Corn. guis, Lith. vetuša, OCS vetŭxŭ, Russ. ве́тхий (vétxij), Pol. wiotchy, Lat. vetus, Osc. Vezkeí
*weyd- to see, know Skr. वेत्ति (vetti), Av. vaēða, Gk. εἶδον (eîdon), Lat. videō, Russ. ве́дать (védatʹ), Phryg. wit-, Eng. witan/wit, Gm. wizzan/wissen, Arm. գէտ (gēt), Kashmiri vūčhūn, Polish widzieć; wiedzieć, ON vita, Goth. weitan, OIr. fis; fiuss; find/fionn, Gaul. Vindomagus, Welsh gwedd; gwŷs; gwyn, Lith. vaidintis, OPruss. widdai, OCS вѣдѣти (věděti)
*weyk- to choose Skr. विनक्ति (vinakti), Av. avavaēk, Lat. victima, Goth. 𐍅𐌴𐌹𐌷𐌰𐌽 (weihan), Eng. wēoh/—, ON vé, Gm. wīhen/weihen
*weyk- victory Lith. veikti, Ltv. veikt, OCS vĕkŭ, Russ. век (vek), ON veig, Gm. wīgan/—, Ir. fichim/, Gaul. Ordovices, Welsh gwych, Eng. wīgan/—, Goth. weihan, Arm. վէգ (vēg), Lat. vincere, Oscan vincter, Polish wiek
*weyḱ- village Gm. weihs/, Lith. viešas, Ltv. viesis, Russ. весь (vesʹ), Av. vīs, Alb. vis, Skr. विश् (viś), Lat. vīcus, Gk. οἶκος (oîkos), Polish wieś, Old Prussian waispattin, Toch. /īke, OCS vĭsĭ
*weys- to sprout Lat. virēre; viridis, Eng. wīse/, Gm. wīsa/Wiese, ON vísir, Lith. veisti, Ltv. viest
*winǵʰ- elm Alb. vidh, Russ. вяз (vjaz), Lith. vinkšna, Ltv. vīksna, Eng. wice/Wych Elm, Kurd. viz, Polish wiąz
*worn- raven Lith. varnas, Russ. воро́на (voróna), Pol. wrona, Toch. B wrauña, Ir. bran
*wred- root Russ. вред (vred), Eng. wyrt/wort, Gm. wirz/Wurz, Lat. rādīx, Gk. ῥίζα (rhíza), Alb. rrënjë/rrânzë, Welsh gwraidd, Ir. frém/fréamh, Goth. 𐍅𐌰𐌿𐍂𐍄𐍃 (waurts), ON urt, Toch. B witsako, Pers. riše(h)

yEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*yeǵ- ice Eng. gicel/icicle, ON jaki, Gm. ichil/gicht, Ir. aig/oighear, Welsh ia, Lith. iža, Ltv. ieze, Russ. икра (ikra)
*yeh₁- year, season Goth. jēr, Eng. gēar/year, Av. yārə, Gk. ὥρα (ōra), Lat. hōrnus, Gm. jar/Jahr, ON ár, Persian dušiyaram/, Lith. jōrė, OCS jara, Russ. яровой (jarovoj), Polish jar
*yes- to boil, to foam Alb gjesh, Eng. gist/yeast, Gm. Gischt, ON jǫstr, Welsh ias, Ir. ess/, Skr. यस्यति (yasyati), Gk. ζέω (zeō), Toch. yäs/
*yewg- to yoke, harness, join Skr. योग, युक्त, युज्

NounsEdit

This is a semasiological index of Proto-Indo-European nominal stems. See Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots for an alphabetical list of roots.

KinshipEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*mánus person Sanskrit मनु (manu), Albanian njeri, Avestan Manuščiθra, English mann/man, German man/Mann, Gothic manna, Old Norse maðr, Latin mas, Old Church Slavonic мѫжь (mǫžĭ), Russian муж (muž), Macedonian мaж ‎(maž), Lithuanian žmogus, Kamviri mânša, Polish mąż, Czech muž, Slovak muž, Pashto merrë
*h₁nómn̥ name Tocharian ñom/ñem, Latin nōmen, French nom, Spanish nombre, Portuguese nome, Umbrian nome, English nama/name, German namo/Name, Old Norse nafn, Gothic namo, Sanskrit nāman, Avestan nąman, Ancient Greek ὄνομα (ónoma), Old Church Slavonic имѧ (imę), Russian имя (imja), Czech jméno, Slovak meno, Macedonian имe ‎(ime), Albanian emër/êmën, Irish ainm/ainm, Welsh anu/enw, Hittite lāman, Kamviri nom, Persian nāma/nām, Old Armenian անուն (anun), Polish imię, Old Prussian emnes, Pashto num, Serbian ime, Kurdish nav
*wiHrós man Sanskrit vīra, Avestan vīra, Latin vir, Umbrian viru, Lithuanian vyras, Latvian vīrs, Tocharian wir, German wer/Werwolf, Gothic wair, Old Norse verr, English wer/werewolf, Old Prussian wirs, Irish fer/fear, Welsh gŵr, Gaulish uiro-, Albanian burrë, Kurdish miro
*gʷḗn woman Russian жена (žena), Polish żona, Czech žena, Slovak žena, Avestan gənā, Ancient Greek γυνή (gunḗ), English cwēn/queen, Sanskrit gnā;jani, Old Prussian genno, Old Armenian կին (kin), Albanian gru, Irish ben/bean, Welsh benyw, Kashmiri zanānū', Old Church Slavonic жєна (žena), Gothic qinō, Old Norse kona, German quena/--, Persian /zan, Phrygian knaik, Tocharian śäṁ/śana, Luwian wanatti-, Pashto šëdza/khëdza, Kurdish jin (žen), Serbian žena
*h₂en- ancestor Ancient Greek ἀννίς (annís), Latin anus, Illyr. ana, German ano/ahn, Lithuanian anyta, Hittite hannas, Old Armenian հան (han), Russian внук (vnuk), Serbo-Croatian unuk, Slovak vnuk, Old Prussian ane, Pashto nikë, Serbian član(family member)
*ph₂tḗr father Albanian atë, Latin pater, French père, Spanish padre, Oscan patír, Umbrian pater, Ancient Greek πατήρ (patḗr), Tocharian pācar/pācer, Gaulish ātir, Sanskrit pitṛ, German fater/Vater, Irish athir/athair, English fæder/father, Welsh gwaladr, Kashmiri petū'r, Persian pitā/pedar, Ossetian fyd/, Old Norse faðir, Gothic faðar, Gaulish Ateronius, Pashto plaar, Macedonian татко ‎(tatko), Kurdish bav
*méh₂tēr mother Old Armenian մայր (mayr), Albanian ëmë, Lithuanian moteris, Latvian māte, Old Prussian mūti, Gaulish mātir, Irish máthir/máthair, Kashmiri mā.j, Latin māter, French mère, Spanish madre, Oscan maatreís, Umbrian matrer, Ancient Greek μήτηρ (mḗtēr), Russian мать (matʹ), Sanskrit mātṛ, Avestan mātar, Tocharian mācar/mācer, German muoter/Mutter, English mōdor/mother, Welsh modryb, Kamviri motr, Old Norse móðir, Persian /mādar, Phrygian mater, Ossetian mad/madæ, Polish matka, Czech matka, Slovak matka, Old Church Slavonic мати (mati), Serb. mater/majka/mati, Macedonian мајка ‎(majka), Pashto mor
*bʰréh₂tēr brother Albanian vëlla, Old Armenian եղբայր (ełbayr), English brōþor/brother, Kashmiri boy, Latin frāter, French frère, Umbrian fratrom, Ancient Greek φράτηρ (phrátēr), Tocharian pracar/procer, Kamviri bṛo, Russian брат (brat), German bruoder/Bruder, Welsh brawd, Sanskrit bhrātṛ, Irish bráthir/bráthair, Lithuanian brolis, Latvian brālis, Gaulish brātir, Persian brātar/barādar, Phrygian brater, Illyr. bra, Gothic brōþar, Old Norse bróðir, Old Prussian brāti, Old Church Slavonic братръ (bratrŭ), Ossetian ærvad/, Avestan brātar, Oscan fratrúm, Polish brat, Czech bratr, Slovak brat, Kurdish bira, Venetic vhraterei, Lydian brafr-, Pashto wror, Serbian brat
*swésōr sister Albanian motër, English sweostor/sister, German swester/Schwester, Sanskrit svasṛ, Old Church Slavonic сєстра (sestra), Russian сестра (sestra), Polish siostra, Czech sestra, Slovak sestra, Latin soror, French sœur, Kamviri sus, Irish siur/siur, Old Armenian քոյր (kʿoyr), Tocharian ṣar/ṣer, Ancient Greek eor/--, Welsh chwaer, Gaulish suiior, Old Norse systir, Gothic swistar, Avestan xvaṅhar, Lithuanian sesuo, Old Prussian swestro, Persian /xāhar, Pashto khor, Kurdish xwişk/xwa (khwishk/khwah)
*suHnús son Sanskrit sūnu, Avestan hunu, Lithuanian sūnus, Old Prussian sūnus, soūns, English sunu/son, German sunu/Sohn, Gothic sunus, Old Norse sonr, Old Church Slavonic сꙑнъ (synŭ), Russian сын (syn), Polish syn, Czech syn, Slovak syn, Macedonian син ‎(sin), Ancient Greek υἱός (huiós), Tocharian se/soṃśke, Irish suth/suth, Thracian sukis, Pashto zoy, Serbian sin
*dʰugh₂tḗr daughter Sanskrit duhitṛ, Ancient Greek θυγάτηρ (thugátēr), Tocharian ckācar/tkācer, English dohtor/daughter, Russian дочь (dočʹ), Old Armenian դուստր (dustr), German tohter/Tochter, Kamviri jü, Gaulish duxtīr, Persian /doxtar, Lithuanian duktė, Old Prussian duckti, Old Church Slavonic дъщи (dŭšti), Bulgarian дъщеря (dŭshterya), Serbian кћер (kćer), Slovak dcéra, Macedonian ќерка ‎(kjerka), Old Norse dóttir, Gothic daúhtar, Avestan duydar, Luwian tuwatar, duttariyata, Hittite duttariyatiyaš, Pashto lur, Kurdish dot
*dayh₂wḗr husband's brother Sanskrit devar, Russian деверь (deverʹ), Polish dziewierz, Lithuanian dieveris, Latvian dieveris, Latin lēvir, German zeihhur/--, English tācor/--, Ancient Greek δαήρ (daḗr), Old Armenian տայգր (taygr), Old Church Slavonic dĕverĭ, Serb. dever, Pashto lewar
*sweḱruH father-/mother-in-law Russian свекровь (svekrovʹ), Sanskrit śvaśura;śvaśrū, Lithuanian šešuras, German swigur/Schwäher, Welsh chwegr, Old Armenian սկեսուր (skesur), Latin socrus, Spanish suegra, Ancient Greek ἑκυρός (hekurós), Albanian vjehërr, Kamviri č.uč., English swēor/--, Avestan xvasura-, Polish świekra, Czech švagr(m)/švagrová(f), Slovak svokor/svokra, Gothic swaíhrō, Old Norse svǽra, Serb. svekar(m)/svekrva(f), Pashto skhër(m) / khwaašëi/khwaakhëi(f), Kurdish khwazur(m)/khwasuh(f)
*snusós daughter-in-law Sanskrit snuṣā, Old Church Slavonic snŭxa, English snoru/--, Latin nurus, Spanish nuera, Ancient Greek νυός (nuós), Old Armenian նու (nu), Polish snecha, Czech snacha, Russian сноха (snoxa), Albanian nusa, Crimean Gothic schuos, Old Norse snor, German snur/Schnur, Serb. snaja/snaha/snaša, Macedonian снаа/снајка/снашка ‎(snaa/snajka/snaška), Pashto nžor/ngor
*ǵh₂lōw- brother's wife Old Church Slavonic zlŭva, Russian золовка (zolovka), Ancient Greek γάλοως (gáloōs), Latin glōs, Phrygian gelaros, Polish zełwa, Serbo-Croatian zaova, Macedonian золва (zolva)
*yenh₂ter- brother-in-law's wife Latin ianitrīcēs, Ancient Greek einatēr, Lithuanian jentė, Latvian ietere, Russian ятровь (jatrovʹ), Sanskrit yātar, Kamviri iâri, Old Armenian ներ (ner), Phrygian ianatera, Polish jątrew, Serb. jetrva, Pashto yor
*h₂éwh₂os grandfather/mother's brother Latin avus; avunculus, Spanish Abuelo, Gaulish avontīr, Ancient Greek aia, Lithuanian avynas, Old Prussian awis, Welsh ewythr, Old Armenian հաւ (haw), Old Church Slavonic uy, English ēam/--, Irish aue/ó, Gothic awó, German ōheim/Oheim, Russian уй (uj), Slovak ujo, Polish wuj, Serb. ujak, Macedonian вујко ‎(vujko)
*nepot- grandson/nephew Latin nepōs, French neveu, Catalan nebot, Spanish nieto, Sanskrit napāt, Avestan napāt, Ancient Greek ἀνεψιός (anepsiós), Albanian nip, Russian нестера (nestera), English nefa/neve, Gaulish nei, German nevo/Neffe, Welsh nai, Kamviri nâvo, Persian napā/nave, Lithuanian nepuotis, Irish necht/; níath/, Old Church Slavonic nestera, Polish nieściora, Serb. nećak, Macedonian внук ‎(vnuk)
*h₁widʰéwh₂ widow Sanskrit vidhyati, Avestan viðavā, Gothic widuwō, Old Prussian widdewu, Russian вдова (vdova), Latin vidua;dīvidō, French veuve, Spanish viuda, Irish fedb/, German wituwa/Witwe, Welsh gweddw, Polish wdowa, English widuwe/widow, Old Church Slavonic въдова (vŭdova), Persian /bēve(h), Ancient Greek eitheos, Umbrian uef, Lithuanian vidus, Latvian vidus, Serb. udova/udovica, Macedonian вдовица ‎(vdovica), Czech vdova, Slovak vdova
*gʰóstis stranger/guest Russian гость (gostʹ), Latin hostis, French hôte, German gast/Gast, Gothic gasts, Polish gość, Old Church Slavonic гость (gostĭ), English gæst/guest, Old Norse gestr, Luwian gaši, Macedonian гост/гостин ‎(gost/gostin), Serb. gost, Czech host, Slovak hosť

Body partsEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ḱer- skull Latin cerĕbrum, Russian череп (čerep), Old Prussian kerpetis, Ancient Greek kare, Avestan sarah, Sanskrit शिरस् (śiras), Old Armenian սար (sar), Breton kern, German hirni/Hirn, Old Norse hjarni, Persian /sar, Tocharian /krāñi, Ossetian sær, Albanian krye, Kurdish sar
*kaput- head Sanskrit कपुच्छल (kapucchala), Latin caput, English heafod/head, German houbit/Haupt, Old Norse haufuð, Gothic haubiþ, Waziri kaparai
*pula- hair Sanskrit पूल ("pula", meaning "bundle" or "straw"), Irish ulcha/ulcha, Latin pilus, Ancient Greek puligges/, Kurdish por
*h₃bʰrúHs brow Sanskrit भ्रू (bhrû), Lithuanian bruvis, Irish bru/bruach, English brū/brow, Russian бровь (brovʹ), Ancient Macedonian abroutes, Ancient Greek ophrus, German /Braue, Tocharian pärwāṃ/pärwāne, Old Prussian wubri, Polish brew, Slovak brva, Old Church Slavonic bruvi, Serbo-Croatian obrve, Old Norse brún, Persian /abru, Pashto wridzëi, Kurdish Brou
*h₃ews- ear Hittite istāman, Ancient Greek ous, Sanskrit usi, Russian уши (uši), Gothic auso, Lithuanian ausis, Latvian auss, Gaulish ausia-, Latin auris, Albanian vesh, German ōra/Ohr, Old Church Slavonic ucho, Slovak ucho, Macedonian уво ‎(uvo), Irish au/, Avestan usi, Persian gaušā/guš, Kurdish guh/goh, English éare/ear, Old Norse eyra, Old Armenian ունկն (unkn), ականջ (akanǰ), Old Prussian āusins, Pashto ghwaž/ghwag, Ormuri goi, Serbian uho/uvo
*h₃ekʷ- eye Russian око (oko), Latin oculus, Tocharian ak/ek, Old Armenian ակն (akn), աչք (ačʿkʿ), Sanskrit अक्षि (ákṣi) and अक्षन् (akṣan), Ancient Greek ophthalmos, English ēge/eye, German ouga/Auge, Gothic augo, Albanian sy, Lithuanian akis, Latvian acs, Kamviri âčẽ, Irish enech/oineach, Welsh enep, Old Church Slavonic oko, Old Norse auga, Polish oko, Slovak oko, Old Prussian ackis, Serbian oko
*nas- nose Sanskrit नस (nasa), Latin nasus, Russian нос (nos), Lithuanian nosis, Latvian nāss or deguns, English nosu/nose, Avestan nah, German nasa/Nase, Kamviri nâsuṛ, Old Prussian nazy, Persian nāham/, Old Church Slavonic nasu, Slovak nos, ä' Macedonian нос ‎(nos), Old Norse nös, Ormuri nene, Serbian nos, Kurdish poz
*h₃es- mouth Sanskrit आसन् (âsan) and आन (âna), both meaning "mouth", and ओष्ठ (ôśtha) meaning "lip", Avestan aosta, Latin ōs, Lithuanian uosta (modern: uostas), Latvian osta, Russian уста (usta), Slovak ústa, Macedonian уста/усни ‎(usta/usni), Kamviri âša, Old Prussian austo, English ōr/--, Hittite aiš, Old Norse oss, Serbian usta
*leb- lip Latin labĭum, German /Lippe; lefs/Lefze English lippa/lip, Kurdish lêv, Welsh llefaru, Russian лобзать (lobzatʹ), Persian /lab, Lithuanian lūpa
*h₃dónts tooth Latin dentis, Ancient Greek odous/donti, Welsh dant, Lithuanian dantis, Sanskrit dantam, Old Armenian ատամն (atamn), English tōþ/tooth, German zand/Zahn, Gothic tunþus, Russian десна (desna), Slovak ďasno (meaning 'gum'), Welsh dant, Kamviri dut, Persian /dandān, Kashmiri dãd, Irish dét/déad, Old Norse tǫnn, Ossetian dændag, Kurdish didan/diran/digan
*dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s tongue Albanian giuha, Latin lingua, Irish tenge/teanga, English tunge/tongue, Gothic tuggo, Old Norse tunga, Sanskrit जिह्व (jihvā), Avestan hizvā, Russian язык (jazyk), Slovak jazyk, Lithuanian liežuvis, Old Armenian լեզու (lezu), German zunga/Zunge, Kurdish ziman, Welsh tafod, Kamviri dic, Persian hizbāna/zabān, Old Prussian insuwis, Tocharian käntu/kantwo, Pashto zhëba, Serbian jezik
*ǵenu- cheek Latin gena, Welsh genou, Ancient Greek genos, Gothic kinnus, Sanskrit हनु (hanu, meaning "jaw" and "cheek"), Avestan zanu, Lithuanian žandas, Latvian zods, Phrygian azon, Tocharian śanwem/, Old Armenian ծնաւտ (cnawt), English cin/chin, German chinni/Kinn, Irish gin/gionach, Old Norse kinn, Persian /goune(h), Ancient Macedonian kanadoi, Kurdish gap
*ǵebʰ- jaw Irish gopchóel/gob, German /Kiefer, English ceafl/jowl, Old Norse keptr, Avestan zafana, Serbian gubica
*smek- chin Irish smech/smeach, Lithuanian smakras, Latvian smakrs, Sanskrit श्मश्रु (śmaśru, meaning "moustache" and "beard"), Hittite zamakur, Old Armenian մաւրուք (mawrukʿ), Albanian mjekër, Latin maxilla, Serbian osmeh(smile)
*bʰardʰeh₂- beard Lithuanian barzda, Latvian bārda, Old Church Slavonic brada, Russian борода (boroda), Slovak brada, Macedonian брада ‎(brada), Latin barba, English beard/beard, German bart/Bart, Welsh barf, Polish broda, Old Norse barðr, Crimean Gothic Bars, Serbian brada
*moni neck Sanskrit मन्या (manyā), meaning "nape, back of the neck", Latin monīle (necklace, collar), English manu/mane, German mana/Mähne, Irish muin/muin, Ancient Greek mannon, Welsh mwnwgl, Gaulish maniakēs, Old Norse mǫn, Avestan minu, Serbian teme
*h₃emesos shoulder Ancient Greek ōmos, Sanskrit अंस (aṃsa), Gothic ams, Old Norse ass, Latin umĕrus, Tocharian es/āntse, Old Armenian ուս (us), Pashto uža/uga, Serbian rame
*ḱub- shoulder Albanian sup, German huf/Hüfte, English hype/hip, Ancient Greek kubos, Avestan supti, Latin cubitus, Sanskrit शुप्ति (śupti), Gothic hups, Welsh gogof, Persian /šāne, Serbian kuk
*h₂erm- arm Ossetian arm, Old Armenian արմուկն (armukn), Latin armus, Gothic arms, English earm/arm, Sanskrit ईर्म (irma), Old Prussian irmo, Old Church Slavonic ramo, Slovak rameno, German aram/Arm, Old Norse armr, Ancient Greek arthron/
*eh₃l- elbow German Elle (ulna, ell), Gothic 𐌰𐌻𐌴𐌹𐌽𐌰 ‎(aleina, “cubit”), Ancient Greek ōlenē, Old Armenian ոլոք (olokʿ), Latin ulna (meaning "elbow, arm, cubit, ell"), Lithuanian uolektis, Latvian olekts, Russian локоть (lokotʹ) (meaning "elbow") and ланита (lanita), (meaning "cheek"), Slovak lakeť, Macedonian лакот ‎(lakоt), Sanskrit आणि (āṇi, meaning "nail"), Welsh elin, English eln/ell, Irish uilin/uille, Gothic aleina, Old Norse aln, Albanian llërë/llânë, Avestan arəθna, Old Prussian woaltis, Old Church Slavonic pakŭtĭ, Polish łokieć, Persian /āran, Serbian lakat, Kurdish anishk
*dows- forearm Sanskrit दोस् (dos), Avestan daoš, Irish doít/doíd, Lithuanian dilbis, Latvian paduse, Russian пазуха (pazuxa) (meaning "bosom"), Persian دوش (doš, meaning "shoulder")
*ǵʰes- hand Sanskrit hasta, Avestan zasta, Kurdish dast, Lithuanian žastas, Latin praesto, Hittite kessar, Lycian izre, Luwian iššari-, Ancient Greek kheir, Old Armenian ձեռն (jeṙn), Kamviri düšt, Albanian dorë, Pashto laas, Serbian šaka
*men- hand Latin manus, Ancient Greek mane, English mund/--, German munt/Vormund
*h₃enogʰ- nail Ancient Greek onohos, Sanskrit नख (nakha) (nail) and नखर (nakhara) (finger-nail), Latin unguis, German nagel/Nagel, Russian ноготь (nogotʹ) (finger-nail or toe-nail), Slovak neht, Macedonian нокт ‎(nokt), Lithuanian nagas, Latvian nags, Avestan nakhara, Old Armenian եղունգն (ełungn), Welsh ewin, English nægl/nail, Persian ناخن (nail, fingernail), Old Church Slavonic noguti, Polish nagietek, Irish inga/ionga, Pashto nuk, Ormuri nakhkche, Serbian nokat, Kurdish nanuk
*psten- breast Ancient Greek stēthos, Old Armenian ստին (stin), Sanskrit stana, Avestan fštāna, Lithuanian spenys, Latvian spenis, Old Norse speni, German spunni/Spanferkel, Irish sine/sine, Kurdish sing, Albanian gji, Old Prussian spenis, Persian /pestan, English spane/--, Serbian prsa
*eh₂udʰr̥ udder Lithuanian ūdroti, English ūder/udder, German ūtir/Euter, Old Norse jūgr, Ancient Greek outhar/, Sanskrit ūdhar, Latin ūber, Russian вымя (vymja), Polish wymię, Slovak vemä, Serbian grudi(woman)/vime(cow), Kurdish guhan(cow)
*perḱ- rib Old Church Slavonic persi, Lithuanian piršys, Sanskrit parśus, Avestan parəsu, Kurdish parsu, Ossetian fars, Serbian rebro
*pog- lap Sanskrit pakṣas, Latvian paksis, Latin pectus, Russian пах (pax), Tocharian päśśäṃ/päšcane
*h₃enbʰ- navel Sanskrit nabhya, Avestan nāba, Kurdish navik, Latvian naba, German nabalo/Nabel, English nafela/navel, Old Norse nafli, Ancient Greek omphalos, Latin umbilīcus, Irish imbliu/imleacán, Kashmiri naf, Old Prussian nabis, Persian /nāf
*udero- belly Latin uterus; venter, Ancient Greek otheros, Sanskrit udara, Avestan udaras, Lithuanian vėdaras, Latvian vēders, German wanast/Wanst, Pashto nas, Serbo-Croatian utroba, Slovak útroby
*pisda vulva Russian пизда (pizda), Lithuanian pyzda, Latvian pīzda, Albanian pidh, Macedonian пичка ‎(pička), Slovak piča, Serbian pizda/pička
*pes- penis Ancient Greek peos, Latin pēnis, German faselt/Fasel, Old Norse fösull, English fæsl/--, Sanskrit पसस् (pasas), Serbian piša(piss)
*h₃erǵʰi- testicle Ancient Greek orkhēs, Old Armenian որձիք (orjikʿ), Irish uirge/, Lithuanian aržilas (modern: eržilas), Latvian erzelis, Avestan ərəzi, Albanian herdhe
*h₃ers- arse Ancient Greek oura, Old Armenian ոռ (oṙ), Hittite arras, English ears/arse, Irish err/earr, German ars/Arsch, Old Norse ars
*ḱlowni- buttock Latin clūnis, Old Norse hlaun, Kamviri slaunis, Sanskrit श्रोणि (śroṇi), Avestan sraoni, Welsh clun, Lithuanian šlaunis, Pashto kunattai
*kroksko- leg Albanian krah, Lithuanian kirkaliai, Old Church Slavonic krakǔ, Russian окорок (okorok), Sanskrit kiṣku
*ǵenu- knee Albanian Gju, Latin genū, Hittite genu, Palaic ginu-, English cnēo/knee, Ancient Greek gonu, Sanskrit jānu, Illyr. Genusus, German kniu/Knie, Persian /zānu, Old Norse kne, Avestan znum, Tocharian kanweṃ/kenīne, Gothic kniu, Old Armenian ծունր (cunr), ծունկք (cunkkʿ), Kurdish chong, Serbian koleno
*kenk- kneecap Sanskrit kañkāla, Lithuanian kenklė, Latvian cinksla, English hēla/heel, Old Norse hǽll, Serbian čašica kolena
*persna- heel Sanskrit pārṣni, Kurdish pani, Latin perna/pernis, Hittite parsina, Gothic fairsna, German fërsana/Ferse, Ancient Greek ptera, English fiersn/-- , Persian /pāšne(h), Lithuanian pentinas, Serbian peta
*pṓds foot Lithuanian pėda, Latvian pēda, Latin pēs, Umbrian peři, Sanskrit pāda, English fōt/foot, Old Armenian ոտն (otn), Ancient Greek podi, Albanian poshtë, Tocharian peṃ/paiyye, Ossetian fad/, German fuoz/Fuß, Old Church Slavonic pĕšĭ, Russian пеший (pešij), Polish pieszy, Slovak peši (meaning 'walking on feet'), Old Prussian pe'da', Hittite patas, Lycian pede-, Luwian pati-, Avestan pâdha, Old Norse fótr, Kurdish pê, Gothic fotus, Persian /pa, Gaulish candetum, Ancient Macedonian argiopus, Pashto pša/pkha, Serbian stopalo/peta?

Body organsEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*kʷrep- body Sanskrit kṛpā, Avestan kərəfš, Albanian shkrep, German href/, Latin corpus, English hrif/midriff, Ancient Greek prapis, Welsh corff, Irish crí/, Polish krępy
*naw- corpse Tocharian nut/naut, Gothic naus, Russian навь (navʹ), Welsh newyn, German not/, Old Norse nār, English néo-/--, Old Church Slavonic navi, Old Prussian nowis, Lithuanian novyti, Latvian nāve, Irish núne/
*neḱ- dead person, death Sanskrit naśyati, Avestan nasyeiti, Ancient Greek nekros, Lithuanian našlys, Latin nex, Tocharian näk/näk, Irish éc/eug, Welsh angeu, Old Norse Naglfar
*pel- skin Ancient Greek pelos; pilon, Latin pellis, Russian пелена (pelena), Gothic fill, German fël/Fell, English filmen/film, Lithuanian plėnė, Latvian plēne, Old Prussian pleynis, Old Norse feldr
*twakos skin Sanskrit tvacas, Hittite tuekkas, Ancient Greek sakos
*h₃ésth₁ bone Albanian asht, Latin os; costa, Ancient Greek ostoun, Russian кость (kostʹ); остов (ostov), Macedonian коска ‎(koska), Sanskrit अस्थि (asthi), Avestan asti, Hittite ḫastāi, Welsh asgwrn, Kamviri âṭi, Persian استخوان (ostexān), Polish kość, Slovak kosť, Kurdish hestî, Tocharian /ásta, Old Armenian ոսկր (oskr), Luwian ḫāš , Serbian kost
*gʷeyH- sinew Old Church Slavonic žitsa, Russian жила (žila), Old Armenian ջիլ (ǰil), ջիղ (ǰił), Lithuanian gija, Latvian dzija, Latin fīlum, Welsh giau, Old Church Slavonic žila, Polish żyła, Slovak žila, Serbian žíla
*gʷiyeh₂ sinew Ancient Greek bios, Sanskrit jyā, Avestan jyā, Kamviri ja
*memso flesh Sanskrit māṃsa, Old Prussian mensā, Gothic mimz, Russian мясо (mjaso), Macedonian месо ‎(meso), Slovak mäso, Albanian mish, Old Armenian միս (mis), Tocharian /mīsa, Latin membrum, Ancient Greek mēnigks, Kashmiri maz, Lithuanian mėsa, Latvian miesa, Irish mír/mír, Serbian meso
*krew- meat Sanskrit क्रविस् (kravis), Lithuanian kraujas, Latvian krevele, Russian кровь (krovʹ), Latin cruor, Irish cró/creo, Ancient Greek kreas, Old Norse hrár, Avestan xrūva, Welsh crau, Polish krew, Slovak krv, German hrāo/roh, Old Church Slavonic kruvi, Old Prussian crauyo, English hrēaw/raw, Serbian krv(blood)
*h₁ésh₂r̥ blood Sanskrit असृज् (asṛj), Old Latin aser, Latvian asinis, Hittite ešar, Lycian esêne-, Luwian ašhar-, Tocharian ysār/yasar, Ancient Greek eiar, Old Armenian արիւն (ariwn)
*mosgo brain Russian мозг (mozg), Macedonian мозок ‎(mozok), Avestan mazga, Kurdish maži, Sanskrit मज्जन् (majjan) (meaning "bone-marrow"), Kashmiri massunt, Old Prussian musgeno, German marag//Mark, Persian /maġz, Polish mózg, Slovak mozog, Czech mozek, Tocharian mäśśunt/, Lithuanian smagenės (modern: smegenys), Latvian smadzenis, English mearg/marrow, Old Norse mergr, Pashto maazghë, Serbian mozak
*gʷʰeleǵʰ- gland Old Armenian գեղձ (gełj), Lithuanian geležuones, Russian железа (železa), Polish zołza, Slovak žľaza, Macedonian жлезда ‎(žlezda), Serbian žlezda
*engʷ- gland Albanian angërr, Ancient Greek adēn, Latin inguen, Old Norse ökkvinn
*rewsmen- throat Sanskrit rōmantha, Welsh rhumen, Latin rūmen, Lithuanian raumuo, Latvian raumins
*plewmō lung Ancient Greek pleumōn, Sanskrit क्लोमन् (kloman), Lithuanian plaučiai, Latvian plaušas, Old East Slavic плюче (pljuče), Russian лёгкое (ljóxkoje), Old Prussian plauti, Latin pulmō, Serbo-Croatian pluća, Slovenian pljuča, Slovak pľúca, Czech plíce, Kurdish pishik
*ḱḗr heart Sanskrit hṛdaya, Avestan zərədā, Hittite karts, Lycian kride, Palaic kart-, Latin cor, Ancient Greek καρδία (kardia) English heorte/heart, Russian сердце (serdce), Lithuanian širdis, Latvian sirds, Old Prussian seyr, Old Armenian սիրտ (sirt), Welsh craidd, Kamviri zâra, Irish cride/croidhe, Polish serce, Slovak srdce, German herza/Herz, Gothic hairto, Old Norse hjarta, Old Church Slavonic srĭdĭce, Macedonian срце ‎(srce), Ossetian zærdæ, Pashto zrrë, Ormuri zli, Serbian srce
*yeh₁kʷr̥- liver sa|यकृत्}}, Lithuanian jeknos, Latvian aknas, Avestan yākarə, Latin iecur, Irish iuchair/iuchair, Ancient Greek ήπαρ (hēpar), Russian икра (ikra), Kamviri iâñi, Persian /jegar, Pashto dzigar, Macedonian џигер ‎(džiger), Serbian jetra
*splenǵʰ- spleen Ancient Greek σπλήν (splēn), Irish selg/sealg, Old Church Slavonic slĕzena, Macedonian слезина ‎(slezina), Latin liēn, Avestan sparazan, Sanskrit plīhan, Lithuanian blužnis, Old Prussian blusne, Kamviri pṛu, Old Armenian փայծաղն (pʿaycałn), Russian селезёнка (selezjónka), Polish śledziona, Slovak slezina, Breton felc'h, Serbian slezina
*lendʰ- kidney German lenti/Lende, English lenden/--, Old Norse lend, Polish lędźwia, Czech ledvina, Russian лядвея (ljadveja), Latin lumbus, Slovenian ledvica, Serbian bubreg/ledja(loin)
*gʷelbʰ- womb English wamb/womb, German wamba/Wamme, Gothic wamba, Old Norse vomb, Sanskrit garbhas, Ancient Greek delphus, Lithuanian gimda
*gwrebʰ- womb Ancient Greek brephos, Irish brommach/, Old Church Slavonic žrĕbę, Russian жеребёнок (žerebjónok), Polish źrebię, Slovak žriebä (meaning 'young horse'), Italian grembo, Serbian drob
*ǵʰer- bowels Latin hernia, Sanskrit hira, Ancient Greek khordē, Old Norse gǫrn, German garn/Garn, English gearn/yarn, Old Armenian ձառ (jaṙ), Lithuanian žarna, Latvian zarna, Albanian zorrë, Hittite karat, Serbian creva
*eh₁ter- intestines Ancient Greek ētor/, Irish inathar/, Latin uterus, Macedonian утроба ‎(utroba), Slovak útroby, Old Norse ǽðr, English ǣdder/, German ādra/Ader, Serbian utroba
*kakka excrement Russian какать (kakatʹ), Slovak kakať (meaning 'to defecate'), Ancient Greek kakkaō, Latin cacō, Old Armenian քակոր (kʿakor), Irish cacc/cac, German /Kacke, Welsh cach, Lithuanian kaka, Persian keke, Serbian kaka

Human feelings and qualitiesEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ters- dry Sanskrit tṛṣyati, Avestan taršu, Old Armenian թառամիմ (tʿaṙamim), Ancient Greek tersomai/, Albanian ter, Latin terra;torrēre;torreō, English þurst/thirst, German durri/dürr, Gothic þaursus, Old Norse þurr, Eastern Baltic trōkšti, Lithuanian trokšti, Irish tírim/tirim, Kashmiri treśiho.t
*daḱru- tear Ancient Greek dakru, Latin lacrĭma, German zahar/Zähre, English tēar/tear, Sanskrit aśru, Lithuanian ašara, Latvian asara, Welsh deigryn, Irish dér/déar, Tocharian ākär/akrūna, Gothic tagr, Old Norse tár, Old Armenian արտաւսր (artawsr), Avestan asrūazan
*ḱeh₂d- hate English hete/hate, German haz/haß, Gothic hatis, Old Norse hatr, Sanskrit riśadas, Avestan sādra/, Ancient Greek kēdos, Oscan cadeis amnud, Irish caiss/cais, Welsh câs, Latin odi
*ǵews- taste Latin dēgūnō, Gothic kiusan, German kiosan/kiesen, Sanskrit joṣati, Avestan zaošō, Albanian dashur, Polish gust, English ceosan/choose, Persian dauš/, Irish asagussim/--, Ancient Greek geusis
*gʰers- horror Old Norse gersta, Lithuanian grasa, grėsti, Latvian grasāt, Old Armenian գարշիմ (garšim), Avestan grəəhma, German gerstī/, Latin fastus, Tocharian krās/krās
*gʰowros fear Sanskrit ghora, Gothic gaurs, German gōrag/, Russian журить (žuritʹ), English gyrn/, Old Norse gaurr
*sweyd- sweat Old Armenian քիրտն (kʿirtn), Albanian djersë, English swǣtan/sweat, Lithuanian saldus, Latvian sviedri, Sanskrit svedate, Latin sūdor; sīdus, Ancient Greek hidros; sidēros, German sweiz/Schweiss, Welsh chwys, Old Norse sveiti, Avestan xvaēda, Pashto khwala
*swep- sleep Lithuanian sapnas, Sanskrit svapnas, Latin somnus, Old Norse svefn, Tocharian ṣpäṃ/ṣpane, Ancient Greek hupnos, Avestan xvafna, Irish suán/suan, Russian сон (son), Old Armenian քուն (kʿun), Albanian gjumë, Welsh hun, English swefan/sweven, Old Church Slavonic sunu, Persian /xāb, Pashto khob
*h₂egos- fault, sin Sanskrit āgas, Ancient Greek agos, English acan/ache
*h₂enh₁- breathe Sanskrit ānas, Gothic uzanan; andi, Irish anál/anál, Latin animus, Ancient Greek anemos, Russian вонь (vonʹ), Welsh anadl, Old Church Slavonic vonja, Old Norse anda; ǫnd, English eðian/--; ōþian/--, Welsh eneid, Avestan åntya, Lithuanian anuoti, Old Armenian հով (hov), Albanian ajë/âj, Oscan anamum, Tocharian āñcäm/āñme
*h₂eym- copy Hittite ḫimma, Latin aemulus; imāgō
*h₂eyw- vital force Sanskrit āyu, Avestan āyū, Tocharian āym/, Latin aevum, Dutch eeuw, English æfre/ever, German īo/je; êwig/ewig, Gothic aiws, Old Norse ei, Ancient Greek aiōn, Albanian eshë
*men- mind Latin mēns, Ancient Greek menos, Sanskrit manas, Avestan manah, English gemynd/mind, Gothic muns, Old Norse minni; man, German minna/Minne, Lithuanian mintis, Latvian minēt, Old Prussian mēntimai Old Church Slavonic mineti, Russian мнить (mnitʹ), Slovak mieniť, Old Armenian միտ (mit), Albanian mund, Persian mainyāhay/, Tocharian mnu/mañu, Irish dermet/dearmad, Welsh cof

Celestial termsEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*telp- space Sanskrit talpa, Lithuanian tilpti; telpu, Latvian tilpt; telpu, Russian толпа (tolpa), Tocharian tsälp/tälp, Irish -tella/
*h₂stḗr star Ancient Greek astēr, German sterro/Stern, English steorra/star, Old Norse stjarna, Gothic stairno, Latin stella, Kurdish stêr, Old Armenian աստղ (astł), Sanskrit tāras;stṛbhis, Welsh seren, Tocharian śre/śćirye, Kamviri ṛâšto, Persian /setāre, axtar, Ossetian sthaly/, Hittite ḫašterz(a), Pashto storai, Serbian zvezda
*sóh₂wl̥ sun Lithuanian saulė, Latvian saule, Latin sōl, Welsh haul, Ancient Greek hēlios, Albanian (h)yll, English sigel/--; sunne/sun, Russian солнце (solnce), Sanskrit sūras, Avestan hvarə, German sunna/Sonne, Old Norse sól; sunna, Gothic sauil; sunno, Welsh haul, Irish súil/súil, Tocharian swāñce/swāñco, Kamviri su, Polish słońce, Slovak slnce, Old Church Slavonic slunice, Protoslavonic slnъ, Old Prussian saule, Persian -farnah-/ , Serbian sunce
*mḗh₁n̥s moon/month Hittite armas, Ancient Greek mēn, Tocharian mañ/meñe, Latin mēnsis, English mōna/moon, Old Church Slavonic meseci, Russian месяц (mesjac), Slovak mesiac, Czech měsíc, Sanskrit māsa, Old Armenian ամիս (amis), Avestan maoṅh, Irish mí/mí, Old Norse mani, German mano/Mond, Gothic mena, Albanian muaj, Lithuanian mėnuo, Latvian meness, Welsh mis, Kamviri mos, Persian /māh, Ossetian mæj, Old Prussian menig, Pashto myaasht, Ormuri mail, Serbian mesec
*nébʰos sky/cloud Russian небо (nebo), Slovak nebo, Latin nebŭlō, Sanskrit nabhas, Ancient Greek nephos, Hittite nepiš, Lycian tabahaza, Luwian tappaš-, German nebul/Nebel, English nifol/--, Welsh nef, Kamviri niru, Polish niebo, Old Church Slavonic nebo, Lithuanian debesis, Latvian debess, Avestan nabah, Irish nem/neamh, Old Norse niflhel, Serbian nebo
*lewk- light/bright Avestan raočant, Ancient Greek leukos, English lēoht/light, Latin lūx, Gaulish leux, German lioht/licht, Kamviri luka, Gothic liuhaþ, Old Norse leygr, Russian луч (luč), Sanskrit rocate, Tocharian luk, Oscan Lúvkis, Umbrian Vuvçis, Welsh llug, Irish loscaim/loiscim, Kamviri ṛuč, Lithuanian lauka, Latvian lauks, Hittite lalukkes, Lycian luga, Luwian luha-, Old Armenian լոյս (loys), Old Church Slavonic luci, Polish łuczywo, Slovak lúč, Serbian svetlo/luča(torch)
*perk- lighting/strike Baltic Perkun (god of sky), Greek keranós (lighting), Hittite perunaš (rock), Latin quercus (oak), Old Slavonic Perun (god of sky), Polish piorun

Times of dayEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*deyn- day Old Armenian տիւ (tiw), Russian день (denʹ), Irish denus/, Lithuanian diena, Latvian diena, Sanskrit dinam, Latin diēs, Albanian ditë, Welsh dydd, Polish dzień, Slovak deň, Czech den, Irish día/dia, Gothic sintīns, Old Prussian deinan, English lencten/lent, German lenzo/Lenz, Breton deiz, Serbian dan
*dʰǵʰ(y)es- yesterday English geostran/yesterday, Albanian dje, Sanskrit hyas, Avestan zyō, Kurdish duh, Persian diyaka/dīg/diruz/dine, Ancient Greek khthes, Latin herī, Welsh ddoe, Irish indhé/an(d)é, Gothic gistradagis, Old Norse í gǽr, German gesteron/gestern, Serbian juče
*h₂eǵʰ- day Sanskrit ahar, Avestan azan, English dæg/day, German tag/Tag, Gothic dags, Old Norse dagr, Albanian ditë
*h₂ews- dawn Lithuanian aušra, Latvian ausma, German ōstra/Osten, Sanskrit उषस् (uṣas), Russian утро (utro), English ēast/east, Ancient Greek hēos, Latin aurōra, Old Norse austr, Avestan ušastara, Irish fáir/, Welsh gwawr, Serbian zora
*nókʷts night Ancient Greek nuks, Bulgarian нощ /nošt, Lithuanian naktis, Latvian nakts, German naht/Nacht, Sanskrit nakti, Hittite nekuz, Latin nox, Russian ночь (nočʹ), Albanian natë, Irish innocht/anochd, Tocharian nakcu/nekcīye, Welsh nos, English niht/night, Polish noc, Slovak noc, Old Prussian naktin, Gothic nahts, Old Norse nótt, Old Church Slavonic noštь, Serbian noć
*wespero- evening Old Armenian գիշեր, Latin vespera, Ancient Greek hesperos, Lithuanian vakaras, Latvian vakars, Irish fescor/feascar, Russian вечер (večer), Gothic veig, Welsh ucher, Polish wieczór, Slovak večer, Serbian veče-r

SeasonsEdit

Root Meaning Derivatives
*yeHr- year Gothic jēr, English gēar/year, Avestan yārə, Old Church Slavonic jara, Ancient Greek ōra, Latin hōrnus, German jar/Jahr, Old Norse ár, Persian dušiyaram/, Lithuanian jorė, Russian яровой (jarovoj), Polish jar, Slovak jar (meaning 'spring')
*wet- year Latin vetus, Ancient Greek etos, Sanskrit vatsa, English weðer/wether, German widar/Widder, Gothic wiþrus, Old Norse veðr, Hittite witt, Albanian vjet, Irish fethim/feithim, Cornish guis, Lithuanian vetuša, Old Church Slavonic vetŭxŭ, Russian ветхий (vetxij), Polish wiotki, Slovak vetchý (meaning 'old, fragile'), Oscan Vezkeí
*wésr̥ spring Russian весна (vesna), Sanskrit वसन्त vasanta, Lithuanian vasara, Latvian vasara, Old Norse vár, Latin vēr, Avestan vaṅri, Old Armenian գարուն (garun), Kamviri vâsut, Persian /bahār, Polish wiosna, Ancient Greek ear, Old Church Slavonic vesna, Irish errach/, Welsh gwanwyn, Serbian proleće/Vesna(goddes of spring)
*sem- summer Sanskrit samā, English sumor/summer, Avestan ham, Old Armenian ամառն (amaṙn), German sumar/Sommer, Old Norse sumar, Welsh haf, Irish samrad/samhradh, Tocharian ṣme/ṣmāye
*h₃esen- harvest Russian осень (osenʹ), Old Prussian assanis, English earnian/earn, Gothic asans, German aran/Ernte, Old Norse ǫnn, Ancient Greek opōra, Polish jesień, Slovak jeseň, Latin annōna, Serbian jesen
*ǵʰey- winter Sanskrit हिमा himA/hemanta, Latin hiems, Ancient Greek kheima, Gaulish Giamillus, Old Church Slavonic zima, Russian зима (zima), Polish zima, Slovak zima, Lithuanian žiema, Latvian ziemas, Old Prussian semo, Avestan zimo, Old Armenian ձմեռն (jmeṙn), Albanian dimër/dimën, Kamviri zẽ, Persian /zemestān, Tocharian śärme/śimpriye, Welsh gaeaf, Irish gaimred/geimhreadh, Hittite gima, Old Norse gói, Persian /dai, Pashto zhëmai, Serbian zima

AtmosphereEdit

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*ḱewero- northwind Russian север (sever), Slovak sever, Lithuanian šiaurys, Latin caurus, Old Armenian ցուրտ (cʿurt), English scūr/shower, German scūr/Schauer, Gothic skura, Old Norse skúr, Old Church Slavonic severu, Serbian sever
*sneygʷʰ- snow Lithuanian sniegas, Latvian sniegs, Old Prussian snaygis, Russian снег (sneg), Irish snechta/sneachta, Sanskrit snēha, English snāw/snow, Latin nix, Ancient Greek nipha, German sneo/Schnee, Old Norse snjór, Gothic snaiws, Polish śnieg, Slovak sneh, Czech sníh, Welsh nyf, Old Church Slavonic snegu, Avestan snaēža, Tocharian /śiñcatstse, Serbian sneg