User:Xenos melophilos/Khalaj alphabet


These alphabets are based on Azerbaijani orthography, and Ali Asgar Cemrâsî's scripts[1][2]


Khalaj vowel graphemes - phonemes
Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i /i/ y /y/ ı (/ɨ/) u /u/
Mid e /e/ ö /ø/ o /o/
Open ə /æ/ a /a/
Khalaj consonant phonemes
Labial Dental Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ñ /ɲ/
Stop/Affricate voiceless p /p/ t /t/ ç /t͡ʃ/ k /k/ q /q/
voiced b /b/ d /d/ c /d͡ʒ/ g /ɡ/
Fricative voiceless f /f/ s /s/ ş /ʃ/ x /χ/ h /h/
voiced v /v/ z /z/ j /ʒ/ ğ /ʁ/
Approximant l /l/ y /j/
Rhotic r /ɾ/

Khalaj latin orthography

Khalaj latin alphabet
Upper case A B C Ç D E Ə F G Ğ H X I İ J K Q L M N Ñ O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü V Y Z
Lower case a b c ç d e ə f g ğ h x ı i j k q l m n ñ o ö p r s ş t u ü v y z
IPA /a/ /b/ /d͡ʒ/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /e/ /æ/ /f/ /ɡ/ /ʁ/ /h/ /χ/ (/ɨ/) /i/ /ʒ/ /k/ /q/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /o/ /ø/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /u/ /y/ /v/ /j/ /z/
  • ⟨ı⟩ actually stands for not only /ɨ/, but also /i/, /u/ and /y/, since these vowels alternate a lot.
  • ⟨ñ⟩ actually represents lot of allophones like [n] and [j].
  • Long forms of a, e, ə, i, o, ö, u and ü are written with circumflex: â, ê, ə̂, î, ô, ö̂, û, ü̂.
    For the long form of /ɨ/, ⟨ı⟩ is duplicated: "ıı". Even if it's pronounced as [iː] it should be written as "ıı" because of the front or back vowels before and after it (vowel harmony).
  • The only falling diphthongs that are allowed are those composed by 1 close vowel and 1 mid vowel next, for example îe [iːe̯], ü̂ö [yːø̯] ûo [uːo̯].
  • Rising diphthongs don't have an special representation: the long vowels stand for them.

Khalaj arabic orthography

Khalaj Perso-Arabic alphabet
Arabic آ ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ڲ ل م ن ݧ و ؤ وُ وْ ۆ ه ی ئ ؽ
IPA /aː-/ /a/, /-aː(-)/ /b/ /p/ /t/ /s/ /dʒ/ /tʃ/ /h/ /χ/ /d/ /z/ /ɾ/ /z/ /ʒ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /s/ /z/ /t/ /z/ [ʔ] ~ [∅] /ʁ/ /f/ /q/ /k/ /ɡ/ /-ʝ(-)/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /v/ /ø/ /u/ /o/ /y/ /h/, /æ/ /i/, /j/ /e/ (/ɨ/)
  • ⟨ؽ⟩ actually stands for not only /ɨ/, but also /i/, /u/ and /y/, since these vowels alternate a lot.
  • ⟨ݧ⟩ actually represents allophones like [n] and [j].
  • ⟨ڲ⟩ actually represents allophones like [ɡ] and [j].
  • ف ,ع ,ظ ,ط, ض ,ص ,ژ ,ذ ,خ ,ح ,ث are only used for Persian, Azeri and Arabic loanwords
  • ؽ ,ئ ,ی ,ۆ ,وْ ,وُ ,ؤ not only represent short vowels, but long ones.
  • If ha' represents /æ/, it must be written in final position in auslaut. If /æ/ is long, ha' is the only letter that represents it.
  • If a native word begins with a vowel other than ⟨a⟩ or ⟨ə⟩, the representing letter must be anticipated by alif.
  • Diphthongs are constructed in the same way as in the latin script, with rising diphthongs not being specially represented.
  • Loanwords borrowed from languages that use Arabic script (for example Persian, Arabic and Azeri) should conserve the original written form, even if it doesn't match with Khalaj orthography.
Short vowels (harakat)
Khalaj IPA
◌َ /a/, /æ/
◌ِ /i/ ~ /ɨ/
◌ُ /u/, /y/, /o/, /ø/
  • Fatha stands for /æ/ in anlaut and inlaut.
  • Fatha stands for /a/ only above of alif at the beginning of a word.
  • Harakat is used mainly in Persian and Arabic loanwords. It's also used to avoid confusion.
Khalaj Function
◌ّ Consonant duplication
  • Shaddah is used only with Arabic loanwords. For native ones, the consonant is duplicated.