Wiktionary:About Primitive Irish

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Defining the language edit

Primitive Irish (ISO 639-3 code pgl) is defined here as Goidelic terms dating to the 6th century or before and written in Ogham. Later terms may be considered Old Irish, Middle Irish, Modern Irish or Scottish Gaelic. Please also note that not all inscriptions in Ogham are necessarily in Primitive Irish.

All terms should have an entry with a title in Ogham, and another entry with the transliteration as its title and the following content:

==Primitive Irish==

===Romanization===
{{pgl-rom}}

# {{romanization of|pgl|<Ogham>}}

where <Ogham> is replaced by the title of the main entry for that word in Ogham.

If a Primitive Irish word has descendants in Old Irish, modern Irish, Scottish Gaelic, or Manx, these may be listed in a "Descendants" section.

For nouns, the lemma form is the genitive singular (for most nouns, this is the only attested form).

Sound changes edit

Proto-Celtic Primitive Irish
Normal Affection (i) Affection (a) Affection (o)
a/ā /a(ː)/ a /a/
o /o/ o /o/ u /u/
u/ū /u(ː)/ u /u/
e/ē /e(ː)/ e /e/ i /i/
i /i/ i /i/ e /e/ e /e/
Proto-Celtic Primitive Irish
Normal Palatalised
y i
k k c
q
p1 q
w- v-

NOTES
1 Imported from Latin.

Declension edit

There are several types of declensions for masculine nouns and one (known) declension for feminine nouns.

MASCULINE

o-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -as
Accusative
Genitive -i
Dative
yo-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -ias
Accusative
Genitive -i
Dative
u-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -us
Accusative
Genitive -os1
Dative
i-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -is
Accusative
Genitive -os1
Dative
dental stem Singular Plural
Nominative -ts
Accusative
Genitive -tos2
Dative

FEMININE

á-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -a
Accusative
Genitive -as, -ea, -eas
Dative

NOTES
1 This later developed into o or u. 2 This later developed into tas.

Developments edit

Primitive Irish Old Irish
Normal Lenition
q /kʷ/ c /k/ ch /x/
t /t/ t /t/ th /θ/
k /k/ c /k/ ch /x/
v- /w/ (/ʍ/?) f- /f/ ḟ- (silent)
d /d/ d /d/ d /ð/
v /w/ (/ʍ/?) b /v/

Example of development edit

PROTO-CELTIC
wiros
PRIMITIVE IRISH
viras (os > as)
veras (i lowers to match the a)
verah (s becomes h)
vera (s dropped)
ver (apocope finalised)
OLD IRISH
fer

PROTO-CELTIC
rorīgos /roriːgos/
PRIMITIVE IRISH
rurīgos (i affection) /ruriːɣos/
ruregas (o affection + os > as) /rureɣas/
ruregah (s becomes h) /rureɣah/
rurega (s dropped) /rureɣa/
rureg (apocope finalised) /rureɣ/
OLD IRISH
ruirech
/rurʲex/