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List of references in Chinese entries ({{zh-ref}}):



  • Bai, Wanru (白宛如) (1980). 广州话本字考. Fangyan, 3: 209–223.
  • Bailey, Harold Walter (1979). Dictionary of Khotan Saka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. →ISBN.
  • Ban, Chao (班弨); Su, Ruoyang (蘇若陽) (2017). “荔枝”源于侗台语考 (A Textual Research on the Kam-Tai Origin of Lizhi “Lychee”). Minority Languages of China, 4: 54–61.
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1987). “In Search of Austro-Tai Strata in Southern Chinese Dialects”. Computational Analyses of Asian and African Languages, 28: 53–65.
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1991). “Sino-Tibetan *Vulva”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 14 (1): 147–172.
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1994). “Sino-Tibetan *kolo 'Wheel'“. Sino-Platonic Papers: 47.
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1996). “Identifying the Tai substratum in Cantonese”, Pan-Asiatic Linguistics: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Languages and Linguistics, January 8-10, 1996, ed. Mahāwitthayālai Mahidon. Sathāban Wičhai Phāsā læ Watthanatham phư̄a Phatthanā Chonnabot. Salaya, Thailand: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University, pp. 1806–1844.
  • Baxter, William H. (1992). A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, →ISBN.
  • Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent (1998). Word formation in Old Chinese. In Jerome Packard (ed.), New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, Phonology and the Lexicon in Modern and Ancient Chinese, 35–76.
  • Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent (2014). Old Chinese: A New Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton University Press.
  • Benedict, Paul (1972). Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. Princeton/Cambridge Studies in Chinese Linguistics, Issue 2.
  • Benedict, Paul (1976). “Sino-Tibetan: Another Look.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 96 (2): 167–197.
  • Benedict, Paul (1979). “Four Forays into Karen Linguistic History”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 5 (1): 1–35.
  • Benedict, Paul (1986). “Archaic Chinese initials.” Wang Li Memorial Volumes: English Volume, 25–71.
  • Benedict, Paul (1990). “Austroasiatic loanwords in Sino-Tibetan”. Mon-Khmer Studies Journal, 18–19: 1–13.
  • Bi, Xinwei (畢新偉) (2013). 「她」字的來源與女性主體性——評《「她」字的文化史》 (The Origins of “She” and Female Subjectivity: A Review of «The Cultural History of “She”»), 二十一世紀, p. 139.
  • Bodman, Nicholas (1980). Proto-Chinese and Sino-Tibetan: Data Towards Establishing the Nature of the Relationship. In: Frans van Coetsem and Linda R. Waugh, Contributions to Historical Linguistics: Issues and Materials, 34–199. Leiden.
  • Bray, Francesca. "Millet cultivation in China: a historical survey," Journal d'agriculture traditionnelle et de botanique appliquée, 28(3): 291-307, 1981.


  • Carr, Michael (1990). “Chinese Dragon Names”. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 13 (2): 87–189.
  • Chan, Hsien-tz'u (詹憲慈) (1995). 《廣州語本字》 (The Source Words of Colloquial Cantonese). Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
  • Chan, Pak Fai (陳伯煇) (1998). 《論粵方言詞本字考釋》. Hong Kong: Zhonghua Book Company.
  • Chen, Qingying (陈庆英) (1999). 《汉文“西藏”一词的来历简说》. 《燕京学报》. 6.
  • Cheng, Chun-yuan (程俊源) (2014). 客家「新婦」之地理圖像. Published for 語言文化分佈與族群遷徙工作坊 (Workshop on the Relationship between Racial Migration and Distribution of Languages or Cultures).
  • Cheng, Hsiao-feng (鄭曉峯) (2010). 客家話的語言地理學研究:海陸話「韶早」的來源 (“The Origin of shau5-tso2 ‘tomorrow’ in Hailu Hakka: A Linguistic Geography Approach”). Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies. 40 (4): 713–733.
  • Chi, Hsu-Sheng (季旭昇) (2010). 《說文新證》. Fuzhou: Fujian People's Publishing House.
  • Chiu, Kaiming (裘開明) (1936). “The Introduction of Spectacles Into China”. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 1 (2): 186–193.
  • Chiu, Yun-ju (邱韻如) (2015). 《明清眼鏡之文本溯源與時空背景探查》 (Tracing the Origin of Eyeglasses in China by Analyzing Texts and Historico-geographical Background). 中華科技史學會學刊. 20: 55–71.
  • Chu, Taisong (儲泰松) (2002). 「和尚」的語源及其形義的演變 (“Etymology of ‘Heshang’ and The Evolution of Its Forms and Meaning”). Studies in Language and Linguistics. 1: 83–90.
  • Clauson, Sir Gerald (1972). An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Clements, Jonathan (2014). An Armchair Traveller's History of the Silk Road. Haus Publishing. →ISBN.
  • Coblin, W. South (1986). A Sinologist's Handlist of Sino-Tibetan Lexical Comparisons. Nettetal: Steyler Verlag.
  • Coblin, W. South (1994). “A Compendium of Phonetics in Northwest Chinese”. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series. 7: 1–117, 119–504.


  • Deng, Xiaohua (鄧曉華) (1994). 南方漢語中的古南島語成分. Minority Languages of China (《民族語文》). 3: 36–40.
  • Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (中国科学院语言研究所词典编辑室) (editors) (1973). 《现代汉语词典》 (A Dictionary of Current Chinese). Shiyongben (试用本) edition. Beijing: Commercial Press.
  • Dictionary Editing Office, Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室) (editors) (2016). 《现代汉语词典》 (A Dictionary of Current Chinese). Seventh edition. Beijing: Commercial Press.
  • Donkin, Robin Arthur (2003). Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices Up to the Arrival of Europeans. American Philosophical Society. →ISBN.


  • Feng, Chuntian (馮春田) (1997). 漢語複數詞尾“們”來源試說. 《俗語言研究》. 4: 76–85.


  • Gan, Yu'en (甘于恩) (1997). 广东粤方言人称代词的单复数形式. Zhongguo Yuwen, 5: 351–354.
  • Gong, Hwang-cherng (龔煌城) (1995). The System of Finals in Proto-Sino-Tibetan. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series No. 8, The Ancestry of the Chinese Language, pp. 41–92.
  • Guo, Bizhi (郭必之) (2003). 香港粤语疑问代词“点[tim³⁵]”的来源 (The Origin of the Hong Kong Cantonese Interrogative Pronoun [tim³⁵] (点)). In: 《语言学论丛》编委会, 《语言学论丛》, volume 27. Beijing: Commercial Press.
  • Guo, Moruo (郭沫若) (1931). 《甲骨文字研究》. Republished by 科學出版社, 1982.
  • Guo, Moruo (郭沫若) (1945). 《十批判書》. Republished by 人民出版社, 1982.


  • Handel, Zev Joseph (1998). The Medial Systems of Old Chinese and Proto-Sino-Tibetan. Ph. D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
  • Handel, Zev Joseph (2008). “What is Sino-Tibetan? Snapshot of a Field and a Language Family in Flux”. Language and Linguistics Compass. 2/3: 422–441.
  • Hashimoto, Mantaro (橋本萬太郎) (1978). Gengo ruikei chiri-ron (言語類型地理論, Typological and Geographical Linguistics). Kōbundō.
  • [HFC] Peking University, Department of Chinese Language and Literature. (北京大學中國語言文學系語言學教研室 編). 《漢語方言詞彙》 (Chinese Dialectal Lexicon). Beijing: Yuwen Press, 2nd edition. →ISBN.
  • Hong, Zhenhuan (洪震寰) (1994). 《眼镜在中国之发始考》. 《中国科技史料》. 15 (1): 71–75.
  • Hsu, Dong-Bo (徐東伯) (2009). “The syllable in Old Chinese: sub-syllabic processes, syllable structure, and the status of medial glides”. Journal of East Asian Linguistics. 18: 361.
  • Hu, Qingying (胡慶英) (2013). 「漣漪」考證. 華中人文論叢. 4 (01): 70–73.
  • Huang, Diancheng (黃典誠) (1980). 閩語人字的本義 (Original Meaning of the Word for “Person” in Min). Fangyan. 4.
  • Huang, Xiaoya (黃小婭) (2011). 试论广州方言的基本特征词“煲”. Journal of Jinan University (Philosophy and Social Sciences). 3: 145–149.
  • Huang, Xingtao (黃興濤); Chen, Peng (陳鵬) (2010). 《近代中国“黄色”词义变异考析》. 《历史研究》. 6: 83–89.


  • Jiang, Lansheng (江藍生) (1995). 说“麽”与“们”同源. 《中國語文》 (Studies of the Chinese Language). 3: 180–190.


  • Karlgren, Bernhard (1957). Grammata serica recensa. Stockholm.
  • Kong, Zhongnan (孔仲南) (1933). 廣東俗語考. Republished by Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing House, 1992.


  • LaPolla, Randy J. (1994). “Variable finals in Proto-Sino-Tibetan”. BIHP 65: 1: 131–173.
  • Laufer, Berthold (1914). Chinese clay figures. Part I: Prolegomena on the history of defensive armor. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.
  • Laufer, Berthold (1967). Sino-Iranica. Volume 201 of Publication: Field Museum of Natural History. Рипол Классик. →ISBN.
  • Li, Jinfang (李錦芳) (1990). 粤语中的壮侗语族语言底层初析. Journal of Minzu University of China (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition). 6: 71–76.
  • Li, Jinfang (李錦芳) (2002). 《侗台语言与文化》 (Tai-Kadai Languages and Cultures). Publishing House of Minority Nationalities.
  • Li, Lan (李藍) (2013). 再論“們”的來源. In: Guangshun Cao, Hilary Chappell, Redouane Djamouri and Thekla Wiebusch (editors), Breaking Down the Barriers: Interdisciplinary Studies in Chinese Linguistics and Beyond. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
  • Li, Ru-long (李如龍) (2017). 说“闽” (“On ‘MIN’”). Journal of Xiamen University (Arts & Social Sciences). 6: 104–110.
  • Li, Xiaorong (李小榮) (1998). “娄罗之辨”与梵语四流音. 《中國語文》. 6: 451.
  • Li, Xingjian (李行建) (editor) (2014). 《现代汉语规范词典》 (A Standard Dictionary of Current Chinese). Third edition. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
  • Li, Yan (李豔) (2012). 《說文解字》所收「芍」、「芡」、「蔆」疏解 (“Explanation on “Shao”, “Qian” and “Ling” in Shuo Wen Jie Zi”). 《農業考古》 (Agricultural Archaeology). 1: 195–198.
  • Li, Y.-H. Audrey (李豔惠); Shi, Yuzhi (石毓智) (2000). 汉语量词系统的建立与复数标记“们”的发展. Contemporary Linguistics. 1: 27–36.
  • Lian, Chun-zhao (練春招) (2001). 客家方言与南方少数民族语言共同词语考略 (“The Textual Research of Common Words in Hakka Dialect and Minority Languages in South China”). Journal of Jiaying University (Philosophy & Social Sciences). 19 (2): 107–113.
  • Lin, Yiguang (林義光) (1920). 《文源》. Republished by 中西書局, 2012.
  • Liu, Xunning (劉勛寧) (1985). 現代漢語句尾「了」的來源. 《方言》. 2: 128–133.
  • Louie, Kin-sheun; Liu, Kam-biu (2003). “Earliest historical records of typhoons in China”. Journal of Historical Geography. 29 (3): 299–316.
  • Luo, Changpei (羅常培) (1950). 《語言與文化》 (Language and Culture). Beijing University Press.
  • Lü, Shuxiang (呂叔湘) (1940). 释您,俺,咱,喒,附论们字. In Lü, Shuxiang (呂叔湘) (2002). 《吕叔湘全集第二卷:汉语语法论文集》. Shenyang: Liaoning Education Press.
  • Lü, Shuxiang (呂叔湘) (1985). 《近代汉语指代词》. Shanghai: Xuelin Publishing House.
  • Luo, Meizhen (1992). “A second discussion of the genetic classification of the Kam-Tai languages: a reply to Benedict”. In C.J. Compton and J.F. Hartmann (Ed.), Papers on Tai languages, Linguistics, and Literatures, 44–54. Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University.
  • Luo, Zhengping (羅正平) (1960). 广州方言词汇探源. Studies of the Chinese Language. 3: 129–134.



  • Needham, Joseph (1962). Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge: University Press. 4 (1).
  • Norman, Jerry (1979). “The Verb — A Note on Min Etymology” (閩語裡的「治」字). Fangyan. 3: 179–181.
  • Norman, Jerry (1983). “Some Ancient Chinese Dialect Words in the Min Dialects” (閩語裡的古方言字). Fangyan. 3: 202–211.
  • Norman, Jerry (1984). “Three Min Etymologies”. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale, 13(2): 175–189.
  • Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Norman, Jerry; Mei, Tsu-lin (梅祖麟) (1976). “The Austroasiatics in Ancient South China: Some Lexical Evidence”. Monumenta Serica, 32: 274–301.
  • Norquest, Peter K. (2007). A Phonological Reconstruction of Proto-Hlai. Ph.D. dissertation. Tucson: Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona.


  • Ōta, Tatsuo (太田辰夫) (2003). 中国语历史文法 (A Historical Grammar of Modern Chinese). 2nd edition. Translated by Shaoyu Jiang (蔣紹愚) and Changhua Xu (徐昌華). Beijing: Peking University Press.
  • Ōta, Itsuku (太田斎) (2013). 《北方方言“蚯蚓”的对应词》. In: Cao, Zhiyun (ed.), 《汉语方言的地理语言学研究》. Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan.


  • Pan, Wuyun (潘悟雲); Chen, Zhongmin (陳忠敏) (1995). 釋儂 (On “Nong”). Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 23 (2): 129–147.
  • Pan, Wuyun (潘悟雲) (2006). 《追蹤漢語在朝鮮語中的上古借詞》. 民族語文, Issue 1.
  • Pan, Wuyun (潘悟雲) (2015). 方言考本字“觅轨法”. Fangyan, 4: 289–294.
  • Pan, Wuyun (潘悟雲) (2016). 再论方言考本字“觅轨法”——以现代韵母为 u 的滞后层为例. Linguistic Research, issue 4: 9–11.
  • Peiros, Ilia; Starostin, Sergei (1996). A Comparative Vocabulary of Five Sino-Tibetan Languages. Melbourne: University of Melbourne, Department of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics.
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  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1962). “The Consonantal System of Old Chinese”. Asia Major 9: 58–144, 206–265.
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1965). “The Chinese Name for the Turks”. J. Am. Orient. Soc. 85 (2): 121–125.
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1973). “Some new hypotheses concerning word families in Chinese”. JCL 1 (1): 111–125.
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1983). “The Chinese and Their Neighbors in Prehistoric and Early Historic Times,” in: Keightley, The Origins of Chinese Civilization, pp. 411–466.
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1989). “Ablaut and initial voicing in Old Chinese morphology: *a as an infix and prefix”. In: International Conference on Sinology (2nd: 1986: Taipei, Taiwan).
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1995). Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar. Vancouver: UBC Press.


  • Qiao, Quansheng (喬全生); Yu, Yuelong (余躍龍) (2008). 《「圐圙」、「得腦」並非借自蒙語》 (“Kulue” and “De’nao” are not words borrowed from Mongolian). 6th Chinese lexical semantics workshop.
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  • Sagart, Laurent (1988). “Nord et Sud dans la langue et l'écriture des Shang”. T'oung Pao, Second Series, Vol. 74, Livr. 4/5, 249–254
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  • Sagart, Laurent (2004). “The Chinese names of the four directions”. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 124 (1), 69–76.
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  • Shi, Huifeng (釋慧峰) (2014). “Apocryphal Treatment for Conze’s Heart Problems: ‘Non-attainment’, ‘Apprehension’ and ‘Mental Hanging’ in the Prajñāpāramitā Hrdaya”. Journal of the Oxford Centre of Buddhist Studies 6: 72–105.
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  • Wang, Hui (王暉) (2009). 古文字中“𪊓”字与麒麟原型考——兼论麒麟圣化为灵兽的原因 (The Ancient Character (Lin) and the Prototype of Kylin: Also on the Reason for Kylin Sacramentalized as a Holy Beast). Journal of Beijing Normal University (Social Sciences), 2, 64–75.
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  • Wei, Gangqiang (魏鋼強) (2004). 「荸薺」考 (An Etymological Note on “Biqi”). Fangyan. 3: 260–266.
  • Wei, Shuguan (韋樹關) (2000). 从语言看壮侗语族民族对中国农业的贡献 (The Contribution Made by the Minority Group of Zhuang-dong Language, Observed from Language Point). Journal of Guangxi University for Nationalities (Natural Science Edition). 6 (4), 275–278.
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  • Wu, Wei (伍巍); Wu, Fang (吳芳) (2008). 亲属排行“满”、“晚”源流浅溯 (“The discuss on expressing wan (晚) as last”). Journal of Jinan University (Philosophy and Social Sciences), 6: 111–115.
  • Wu, Xueru (巫雪如) (2015). 《上古漢語未來時標記「將」重探》. Language and Linguistics, 16 (2): 249–277.
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  • Xia, Zhengnong (夏征農); Chen, Zhili (陳至立) (editors) (2009). 《辭海》 (Cihai). Sixth edition in colour. Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House.
  • Xiang, Mengbing (項夢冰) (2014). 吴语的“鲎”(虹) (“The Feature Word ‘鲎’(Rainbow)of the Wu Dialect”). Yangtze River Academic. 3: 113–122.
  • Xu, Shiyi (徐時儀) (2002). 鼎、鬲、釜、镬、锅的演变递擅考探 (“The Evolution of the Cooking Utensil Words”). Journal of Huzhou Teachers College. 24 (2): 1–4.
  • Xu, Shiyi (徐時儀) (2003). 禅宗语录中“啰啰哩”语探源. 《中國禪學》. 2: 329–330.
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