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List of references in Chinese entries ({{zh-ref}}):


  • Adams, Douglas Q. (2013). A Dictionary of Tocharian B, 2nd edn., revised and greatly enlarged. 2 vols. Amsterdam–New York: Rodopi.


  • Bailey, Harold Walter (1979). Dictionary of Khotan Saka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521142502.
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1994). “Sino-Tibetan *kolo 'Wheel'“. Sino-Platonic Papers: 47.
  • Bauer, Robert S. (1996). “Identifying the Tai substratum in Cantonese”, Pan-Asiatic Linguistics: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Languages and Linguistics, January 8-10, 1996, ed. Mahāwitthayālai Mahidon. Sathāban Wičhai Phāsā læ Watthanatham phư̄a Phatthanā Chonnabot. Salaya, Thailand: Institute of Language and Culture for Rural Development, Mahidol University, pp. 1806–1844.
  • Baxter, William H. (1992). A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-012324-1.
  • Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent (1998). Word formation in Old Chinese. In Jerome Packard (ed.), New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, Phonology and the Lexicon in Modern and Ancient Chinese, 35–76.
  • Baxter, William H.; Sagart, Laurent (2014). Old Chinese: A New Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton University Press.
  • Benedict, Paul (1972). Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. Princeton/Cambridge Studies in Chinese Linguistics, Issue 2.
  • Bi, Xinwei (畢新偉) (2013). 「她」字的來源與女性主體性——評《「她」字的文化史》 (The Origins of “She” and Female Subjectivity: A Review of «The Cultural History of “She”»), 二十一世紀, p. 139.
  • Bodman, Nicholas (1980). Chinese and Sino-Tibetan; Evidence Towards Establishing the Nature of Their Relationship. In: Frans van Coetsem and Linda R. Waugh, Contributions to Historical Linguistics, 34–199. Leiden.


  • Chu, Taisong (儲泰松) (2002). 《「和尚」的語源及其形義的演變》 (Etymology of ‘Heshang’ and The Evolution of Its Forms and Meaning). Studies in Language and Linguistics. 1: 83–90.
  • Clauson, Sir Gerald (1972). An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Coblin, W. South (1986). A Sinologist's Handlist of Sino-Tibetan Lexical Comparisons. Nettetal: Steyler Verlag.
  • Coblin, W. South (1994). “A Compendium of Phonetics in Northwest Chinese”. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series. 7: 1–117, 119–504.


  • Deng, Xiaohua (鄧曉華) (1994). 南方漢語中的古南島語成分. Minority Languages of China (《民族語文》). 3: 36–40.


  • Gong, Hwang-cherng (龔煌城) (1995). The System of Finals in Proto-Sino-Tibetan. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series No. 8, The Ancestry of the Chinese Language, pp. 41–92.
  • Guo, Moruo (郭沫若) (1931). 《甲骨文字研究》. Republished by 科學出版社, 1982.
  • Guo, Moruo (郭沫若) (1945). 《十批判書》. Republished by 人民出版社, 1982.


  • Hashimoto, Mantaro (橋本萬太郎) (1978). Gengo ruikei chiri-ron (言語類型地理論, Typological and Geographical Linguistics). Kōbundō.
  • [HFC] Peking University, Department of Chinese Language and Literature. (北京大學中國語言文學系語言學教研室 編). 《漢語方言詞彙》 (Chinese Dialectal Lexicon). Beijing: Yuwen Press, 2nd edition. ISBN 7-80006-310-0.
  • Hsu, Dong-Bo (徐東伯) (2009). “The syllable in Old Chinese: sub-syllabic processes, syllable structure, and the status of medial glides”. Journal of East Asian Linguistics. 18: 361.
  • Huang, Diancheng (黃典誠) (1980). 閩語人字的本義 (Original Meaning of the Word for “Person” in Min). Fangyan. 4.



  • LaPolla, Randy J. (1994). “Variable finals in Proto-Sino-Tibetan”. BIHP 65: 1: 131–173.
  • Laufer, Berthold (1967). Sino-Iranica. Volume 201 of Publication: Field Museum of Natural History. Рипол Классик. ISBN 9785874057787.
  • Li, Yan (李豔) (2012). 《說文解字》所收「芍」、「芡」、「蔆」疏解 (“Explanation on “Shao”, “Qian” and “Ling” in Shuo Wen Jie Zi”). 《農業考古》 (Agricultural Archaeology). 1: 195–198.
  • Lin, Yiguang (林義光) (1920). 《文源》. Republished by 中西書局, 2012.
  • Liu, Xunning (劉勛寧) (1985). 現代漢語句尾「了」的來源. 《方言》. 2: 128–133.
  • Luo, Changpei (羅常培) (1950). 《語言與文化》 (Language and Culture). Beijing University Press.
  • Luo, Meizhen (1992). “A second discussion of the genetic classification of the Kam-Tai languages: a reply to Benedict”. In C.J. Compton and J.F. Hartmann (Ed.), Papers on Tai languages, Linguistics, and Literatures, 44–54. Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University.



  • Norman, Jerry (1979). “The Verb 治 — A Note on Min Etymology” (閩語裡的「治」字). Fangyan. 3: 179–181.
  • Norman, Jerry (1983). “Some Ancient Chinese Dialect Words in the Min Dialects” (閩語裡的古方言字). Fangyan. 3: 202–211.
  • Norman, Jerry; Mei, Tsu-lin (梅祖麟) (1976). “The Austroasiatics in Ancient South China: Some Lexical Evidence”. Monumenta Serica, 32: 274–301.
  • Norquest, Peter K. (2007). A Phonological Reconstruction of Proto-Hlai. Ph.D. dissertation. Tucson: Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona.


  • Pan, Wuyun (潘悟雲); Chen, Zhongmin (陳忠敏) (1995). 釋儂 (On “Nong”). Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 23 (2): 129–147.
  • Pan, Wuyun (潘悟雲) (2006). 《追蹤漢語在朝鮮語中的上古借詞》. 民族語文, Issue 1.
  • Pelliot, Paul (1915). “L'origine de Tʻou-kiue, nom chinois des Turcs”. T'oung Pao. Second Series, 16 (5): 687–689.
  • Pou, Saveros; Jenner, Philip N. (1973). “Some Chinese Loanwords in Khmer”, Journal of Oriental Studies, 9 (1): 1–90.
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1965). “The Chinese Name for the Turks”. J. Am. Orient. Soc. 85 (2): 121–125.
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1973). “Some new hypotheses concerning word families in Chinese”. JCL 1 (1): 111–125.
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1989). “Ablaut and initial voicing in Old Chinese morphology: *a as an infix and prefix”. In: International Conference on Sinology (2nd: 1986: Taipei, Taiwan).
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin (1995). Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar. Vancouver: UBC Press.


  • Qiao, Quansheng (喬全生); Yu, Yuelong (余躍龍) (2008). 《「圐圙」、「得腦」並非借自蒙語》 (“Kulue” and “De’nao” are not words borrowed from Mongolian). 6th Chinese lexical semantics workshop.
  • Qiu, Xigui (裘錫圭) (1988). 《文字學概要》. Commercial Press. Beijing.
  • Quan, Guangzhen (全廣鎮) (1996). 《汉藏語同源詞綜探》. Taiwan xuesheng shuju (台灣學生書局, 中國語文叢刊27).



  • Takashima, Ken'ichi (1996). Morphology of the negatives. In : ITO M. & TAKASHIMA Ken'ichi. Studies in Early Chinese civilization. Osaka.
  • Tremblay, Xavier (2005). Irano-Tocharica et Tocharo-Iranica. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 68 (03), 421–449.


  • Unger, Ulrich (1983). 好古 (Hao-ku): Sinologische Rundbriefe, Münster.


  • Wang, Feng (2007). On Initial Correspondences of Sino-Tibetan Related Words. Language and Linguistics, 8 (3), 821–834.
  • Wang, Guowei (王國維) (1923). 《觀堂集林》 (Guantang's Collection). Republished by 中華書局, 1959.
  • Wang, Hui (王暉) (2009). 古文字中“𪊓”字与麒麟原型考——兼论麒麟圣化为灵兽的原因 (The Ancient Character (Lin) and the Prototype of Kylin: Also on the Reason for Kylin Sacramentalized as a Holy Beast). Journal of Beijing Normal University (Social Sciences), 2, 64–75.
  • Wang, Li (王力) (1948). 《漢越語研究》. Lingnan Journal of Chinese Studies, 9 (1), 1–96.
  • Wang, Li (王力) (1982). 《同源字典》 (Dictionary of Word Families). Commercial Press. Beijing.
  • Wei, Gangqiang (魏鋼強) (2004). 「荸薺」考 (An Etymological Note on “Biqi”). Fangyan. 3: 260–266.
  • Wu, Fuxiang (吳福祥) (1998). 重談「動+了+賓」格式的來源和完成體助詞「了」的產生. 《中國語文》. 6: 452–462.
  • Wu, Xueru (巫雪如) (2015). 《上古漢語未來時標記「將」重探》. Language and Linguistics, 16 (2): 249–277.
  • Wulff, Kurt (1935). “Musik” und “Freude” im Chinesischen. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-filologiske Meddelelser 21:2. København.


  • Xue, Caide (薛才德) (2001). 《漢語藏語同源字研究──語義比較法的證明》. Shanghai University Press. ISBN 7810582658.


  • You, Rujie (游汝杰); Zhou, Zhenhe (周振鶴) (1986). 從語言學角度看栽培植物史. 《農業考古》 (Agricultural Archaeology). 2: 33–41.
  • Yue-Hashimoto, Oi-kan (1976). “Southern Chinese dialects ― the Tai connection”. Computational Analysis of Asian and African Languages 6: 1–9.


  • Zhang, Hongming (張洪明) (1998). “Chinese Etyma for River” (《漢語河流詞源考》). Journal of Chinese Linguistics, 26 (1): 1–47.
  • Zhang, Shichao (張世超); Sun, Ling'an (孫凌安); Jin, Guotai (金國泰), Ma, Rusen (馬如森) (1996). 《金文形義通解》. Kyoto: 中文出版社.
  • Zhang, Shuangqing (張雙慶) (2002). 粵語的特徵詞 (Characteristic Words of Cantonese), in: Li Rulong (李如龍), 《漢語方言特徵詞研究》 (Characteristic Words of Chinese Dialects). Xiamen: Xiamen University Press. ISBN 7-5615-1956-7.
  • Zhang, Tingting (張婷婷); Shen, Huaixing (沈懷興) (2014). “非双声叠韵联绵词”问题辨疑——以黄廖本《现代汉语》例词为例. 《現代語文》 (Modern Chinese). 8.
  • Zhang, Zhijye (張之傑) (2007). 鄭和下西洋與麒麟貢 (The Grand Voyages of Zheng He and the Giraffe Tribute), In: 《第七屆科學史研討會彙刊》. Taipei: Committee for the History of Science, Academia Sinica. 200–211.
  • Zhao, Hualun (趙華倫) (2006). 葡萄緣何稱「提子」 (Why grape is called “tizi”). 《咬文嚼字》第11期.
  • Zhengzhang, Shangfang (鄭張尚芳) (2003), 上古音系 (Old Chinese Phonology), Shanghai: Shanghai Education Press. ISBN 978-7-5320-9244-4.
  • Zhou, Dapu (周大璞) (1986). 釋儂 (Explaining “Nong”). Hunan Shida Xuebao.
  • Zhou, Yimin (周一民) (2002), 现代北京话研究 (Xiandai Beijing Hua Yanjiu), Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press. ISBN 7-303-06225-4.