Wiktionary:About Proto-Semitic

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Proto-Semitic is the reconstructed ancestor of all Semitic languages, old as well as modern. It is a descendant of Proto-Afroasiatic.

NotationEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Proto-Semitic consonants
Type Manner Voicing Labial Interdental Alveolar Palatal Lateral Velar/Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Obstruent Stop voiceless *p *t *k
emphatic *ṭ *ḳ
voiced *b *d *g
Fricative voiceless *ṯ *s *ḫ *ḥ *h
emphatic *ṯ̣ *ṣ *ṣ́
voiced *ḏ *z *ḡ
Resonant Trill *r
Approximant *w *y *l
Nasal *m *n

Note that <*š> stands for */s/, whereas <*s> stands for */t͡s/, and that <*ḥ> is not an emphatic <*h>. Elsewhere, an underdot denotes an emphatic consonant and an underline a fricative consonant.

VowelsEdit

The short vowels are *a, *i, and *u; the long vowels are *ā, *ī, and *ū. A vowel of unknown quality can be given as *V (short) or *V̄ (long).

FormatEdit

Entry nameEdit

Nominal, adjectival and verbal entries should just be the root followed by a hyphen, e.g. *ḳarn-.

ReliabilityEdit

Proto-Semitic entries should always provide inherited reflexes in East and West Semitic. If the Western branch provides attestation but not the Eastern (Akkadian and Eblaite), the entry must be created as Proto-West Semitic.

TemplatesEdit

Nouns should use {{sem-noun}} in the headword line, and {{sem-decl-noun}} to show inflection. If the plural stem is known, it must be indicated in both templates using the pl= parameter. Adjectives should show inflection with {{sem-decl-adj}}.

DescendantsEdit

When descended in the usual, linear fashion, descendants may be listed in the following order for consistency. The former contains only the most frequent languages; the latter is the full tree.

Most frequent treeEdit

  • East Semitic:
    • Akkadian:
  • West Semitic:
    • Central Semitic:
      • Arabic:
      • Northwest Semitic:
        • Aramaic:
        • Canaanite:
          • Hebrew:
          • Phoenician:
        • Ugaritic:
    • Ethiopian Semitic:
      • Amharic:
      • Ge'ez:
      • Tigrinya:
    • Old South Arabian:
      • Old South Arabian:

Full treeEdit

  • Ancient North Arabian:
  • Chaha:
  • East Semitic:
    • Akkadian:
    • Eblaite:
  • Himyaritic:
  • Shehri:
  • West Semitic:
    • Central Semitic:
      • Arabic:
      • Dadanitic:
      • Dumaitic:
      • Hasaitic:
      • Hismaic:
      • Northwest Semitic:
        • Amorite:
        • Aramaic:
        • Canaanite:
          • Ammonite:
          • Edomite:
          • Hebrew:
          • Moabite:
          • Phoenician:
          • Samaritan Hebrew:
        • Ugaritic:
      • Old South Arabian:
        • Minaean:
        • Old South Arabian:
        • Qatabanian:
        • Sabaean:
      • Safaitic:
      • Taymanitic:
      • Thamudic:
    • South Semitic:
      • Ethiopian Semitic:
        • Amharic:
        • Argobba:
        • Dahalik:
        • Gafat:
        • Ge'ez:
        • Harari:
        • Inor:
        • Kistane:
        • Mesmes:
        • Mesqan:
        • Muher:
        • Sebat Bet Gurage:
        • Silt'e:
        • Tigre:
        • Tigrinya:
        • Wolane:
        • Zay:
      • South Arabian:
        • Bathari:
        • Harsusi:
        • Hobyót:
        • Mehri:
        • Soqotri: