confounding (plural confoundings)
- The act by which things are confounded, or confused.
- (epidemiology) The process by which an apparent association between an exposure and an outcome is actually explained by another factor.
- 2013, Macera CA; Shaffer R; Shaffer PM, Introduction to Epidemiology: Distribution and Determinants of Disease,, Cengage Learning, page 158:
- Confounding is defined as the confusion or distortion of measures of association between exposure and outcome as a result of third (or more) variable(s).