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TurkishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Ottoman Turkish يومرق (yumruk, fist). Further origin unclear. Either a derivation from Proto-Turkic *jum- (round)[1] (see yumak, yumru) or from Proto-Turkic *judruk (fist) with secondary contamination with the former.[2] Clauson thinks it is rather derived from *jumur-, unrecorded causative of Proto-Turkic *jum- (to close), in the sense of "something clenched",[3] see yum- (to close, clench).

Cognate to Azerbaijani yumruq (fist), Chagatai [script needed] (yumruq, fist), Turkmen ýumruk (fist). Compare also Old Uyghur [script needed] (yıdruk, fist), Karakhanid [script needed] (yuδruk, fist), Bashkir йоҙроҡ (yoðroq, fist).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

yumruk (definite accusative yumruğu, plural yumruklar)

  1. fist

DeclensionEdit

Inflection
Nominative yumruk
Definite accusative yumruğu
Singular Plural
Nominative yumruk yumruklar
Definite accusative yumruğu yumrukları
Dative yumruğa yumruklara
Locative yumrukta yumruklarda
Ablative yumruktan yumruklardan
Genitive yumruğun yumrukların
Possessive forms
Singular Plural
1st singular yumruğum yumruklarım
2nd singular yumruğun yumrukların
3rd singular yumruğu yumrukları
1st plural yumruğumuz yumruklarımız
2nd plural yumruğunuz yumruklarınız
3rd plural yumrukları yumrukları

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*jɨdruk / *judruk”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill
  2. ^ Nişanyan, Sevan (2015-05-07), “yumruk”, in Nişanyan Sözlük
  3. ^ Clauson, Gerard (1972), “yıdruk”, in An Etymological Dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 892