From Proto-Indo-European *upo (“under, below”).
Definitions 4–7 used exclusively with nouns.
Occasionally used with an implied verb, or placed after the verb rather than prefixing it.
- under, below
- on, upon, above
- up to
- at the time of
- at the same time as
- according to
Definitions 1–3 take the accusative, 4–8 take the locative, 9–11 take the instrumental case.
- Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1898, pages 0194, 0195