Last modified on 29 July 2014, at 20:46

शत

SanskritEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *ćata, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm. Cognates include Avestan 𐬯𐬀𐬙𐬀 (sata), Ancient Greek ἑκατόν (hekatón), Latin centum, Old Church Slavonic съто (sŭto), Lithuanian šimtas, Tocharian A känt, and Old English hundred (English hundred).

NumeralEdit

शत (śatá) n, rarely m, at the end of a compound f(ī)

  1. hundred, used with numerals thus:
    एकाधिकं शतम् (ekā*dhikaṃ śatam) or एकशतम् (eka-śatam) — a hundred one, 101
    विंशत्यधिकं शतम् (viṃśaty-adhikaṃ śatam) or विंशं शतम् (viṃśaṃ śatam) — a hundred twenty, 120
    शते (śate) or द्वे शते (dve śate) or द्विशतम् (dvi-śatam) or शतद्वयम् (śata-dvayam) — 200
    त्रीणि शतानि (trīṇi śatāni) or त्रिशतानि (tri-śatāni) or शतत्रयम् (śata-trayam) — 300
    षट्शतम् (ṣaṭ-śatam) — 600
    1. or the compound becomes an ordinal
      द्विशत (dvi-śata) — the 200th
      द्विकं शतम् (dvikaṃ śatam), त्रिकं शतम् (trikaṃ śatam) — 2, 3 per cent
      शतात्पर (śatātpara) — beyond a hundred, exceeding 100
    2. the counted object is added either in the genitive, or in the same case as śata, or at the beginning of a compound
      शतम् पितरः (śatam pitaraḥ) or शतम् पितॄणाम् (śatam pitṝṇām) or पितृशतम् (pitṛ-śatam) — a hundred ancestors
    3. rarely śatam is used as an indeclinable with an instrumental
      एषायुक्त परावतः सूर्यस्योदयनादधि |
      शतं रथेभिः सुभगोषा इयं वि यात्यभि मानुषान ||
      eṣāyukta parāvataḥ sūryasyodayanādadhi |
      śataṃ rathebhiḥ subhaghoṣā iyaṃ vi yātyabhi mānuṣān ||
      This Dawn hath yoked her steeds afar, beyond the rising of the Sun:
      Borne on a hundred chariots she, auspicious Dawn, advances on her way to Men.
    4. rarely occurs a masculine form in plural e.g. पञ्चशता रथान् (pañca-śatā rathān)
    5. and śata n rarely in compounds of the following kind:
      चतुर्वर्षशतम् (catur-varṣa-śatam) or चतुर्वर्षशतानि (catur-varṣa-śatamtāni) — 400 years
  2. any very large number
    शतपत्त्र (śata-pattra) — a hundred leaves etc.

DeclensionEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1898, page 1048