Last modified on 26 May 2014, at 16:53


This entry contains Proto-Indo-European reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



The word is either a nominalization of an unattested adjective *h₂r̥tḱós (destroying) or a derivative of *h₂rétḱes (destruction) (cf. Avestan [script?] (rašah), Sanskrit रक्षः (rakṣaḥ)).

In late PIE (i.e. post-Anatolian period) the word metathesized into *h₂ŕ̥ḱtos which phonetically surfaced as *h₂ŕ̥ḱþos following the rule that when dental and velar occlusives appear syllable-initially, they metathesize tkkt and turn into a thorn cluster denoted ḱþ. See Wikipedia for a discussion of these clusters' makeup.


*h₂ŕ̥tḱos m

  1. bear



  • Albanian:
    • Old Albanian: ar (< shortening of *arth, where -th was mistaken for a diminutive suffix; *arth < *artsa < *arḱos)
      • Albanian: ari (< back-formation from arinj (pl.), inherited plural of OAlb ar), arushë (feminine)
  • Anatolian:
  • Armenian:
  • Baltic:
    • Lithuanian: irštva "bear's den" (< *h₂ŕ̥tḱo/eh₂)
  • Celtic: *artos
  • Hellenic:
  • Indo-Iranian: *Hrtća
    • Indo-Aryan:
    • Iranian:
      • West Iranian
        • Afghan: yəž
        • Balochi: [Arabic?] (riš)
        • Kurdish:
        • Mazanderani: اش ()
        • Luri:
        • Persian: خرس (xirs)
        • Zazaki: xəš
      • East Iranian
    • Nuristani:
      • Kamviri: ic
  • Italic: