Last modified on 4 November 2014, at 20:40

Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/h₂ŕ̥tḱos

Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

The word is either a nominalization of an unattested adjective *h₂r̥tḱós (destroying) or a derivative of *h₂rétḱes (destruction) (cf. Avestan [script needed] (rašah), Sanskrit रक्षः (rákṣaḥ)).

In late PIE (i.e. post-Anatolian period) the word metathesized into *h₂ŕ̥ḱtos which phonetically surfaced as *h₂ŕ̥ḱþos following the rule that when dental and velar occlusives appear syllable-initially, they metathesize tkkt and turn into a thorn cluster denoted ḱþ. See Wikipedia for a discussion of these clusters' makeup.

NounEdit

*h₂ŕ̥tḱos m (non-ablauting)

  1. bear

DeclensionEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Albanian:
    • Old Albanian: ar (< shortening of *arth, where -th was mistaken for a diminutive suffix; *arth < *artsa < *arḱos)
      • Albanian: ari (< back-formation from arinj (pl.), inherited plural of OAlb ar), arushë (feminine)
  • Anatolian:
  • Armenian:
  • Baltic:
    • Lithuanian: irštva (bear’s den) (< *h₂ŕ̥tḱo/eh₂)
  • Celtic: *artos (See there for further descendants.)
  • Hellenic:
  • Indo-Iranian: *Hrtća
  • Italic:
    • Latin: ursus (< *orssos < *orksos) (See there for further descendants.)