From āglāc "distress, torment, misery". A difficult and much-debated word. Possibly in origin a compound from the root of ece "ache, pain" and lāc "ritual, performance, demonstration" (Bosworth 1882), but this is disputed. Found mostly in poetry, and there mostly of monsters and devils, but once of Beowulf and once of Sigemund. The sole attestation in prose is also a unique adjectival use, in Byrhtferth's Enchiridion, where it refers to the scholar Bede as se æglæca lareow, making clear that the word is not inherently pejorative but carries a meaning of "awe-inspiring, formidable".
- Middle English egleche "warlike, brave"
- Cameron, Angus, et al. "Aglac-Wif to Aglaeca." Dictionary of Old English. Toronto: Published for the Dictionary of Old English Project Centre for Medieval Studies University of Toronto by the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1986/1994.
- Gillam, "'Æglæca' in Beowulf" in: Studia Germanica Gandensia 6 (1964).
- A. Nicholls, "Bede: 'Awe-Inspiring', not 'Monstrous': some Problems with Old English aglæca", N&Q 236 (1991).
- M. S. Griffith, 'Some Difficulties in Beowulf, lines 894-902: Sigemund reconsidered' in: Lapidge et al. (eds.), Anglo-Saxon England, vol. 24, Cambridge University Press (1996), ISBN 9780521558457, 11-42 (pp. 34-35).