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Ancient GreekEdit


From ῠ̔πο- (hupo-, under) +‎ ᾰ̓́ρχω (árkhō, to begin)




ῠ̔πᾰ́ρχω (hupárkhō)

  1. to begin, make a beginning, take initiative, be first
    1. (transitive) to make a beginning of, begin
      1. (with genitive)
      2. (with accusative)
    2. (intransitive) be the beginner, be first, do without provocation
      1. to do something first
        1. (with participle)
          • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 7.8B:
            οὐ πρότερον παύσομαι πρὶν ἢ ἕλω τε καὶ πυρώσω τὰς Ἀθήνας, οἵ γε ἐμὲ καὶ πατέρα τὸν ἐμὸν ὑπῆρξαν ἄδικα ποιεῦντες.
            ou próteron paúsomai prìn ḕ hélō te kaì purṓsō tàs Athḗnas, hoí ge emè kaì patéra tòn emòn hupêrxan ádika poieûntes.
            I will never stop until I have taken and burnt Athens, because they have wronged me and my father unprovoked.
          • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Anabasis 5.5.9
        2. (Koine, middle, with infinitive)
    3. (passive)
  2. (only in active)
    1. to begin to be, to come into being, arise, spring up
      1. to be in existence, to be there, to be ready
      2. to really exist
      3. to be
      4. (with a participle)
      5. to be the descendant of
    2. to be laid down, to be taken for granted
    3. to belong to, fall to, accrue
      1. (of persons) to be devoted
      2. (in the logic of Aristotle, denotes the subsistence of qualities in a subject, whether propria or accidentia)
    4. (in neuter plural participle, τὰ ὑπάρχοντα)
      1. existing circumstances, present advantages
      2. what belongs to one, one's possessions
    5. (impersonal, with infinitive and accusative) the fact is that
      1. it is allowed, it is possible
      2. (in neuter participle) since it is allowed you to
  3. to be ὕπαρχος (húparkhos, lieutenant)