- 1 Translingual
- 2 Chinese
- 3 Japanese
- 3.1 Kanji
- 3.2 Etymology 1
- 3.3 Etymology 2
- 3.4 Etymology 3
- 3.5 References
Right component is approximately 𦍌 + 氺.
- KangXi: not present, would follow page 546, character 25
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15352
- Hanyu Da Zidian: not present, would follow volume 2, page 1284, character 6
- Unihan data for U+69D8
|For pronunciation and definitions of 様 – see 樣 (“appearance; form; shape; look; expression; air; etc.”).|
(This character, 様, is a variant form of 樣.)
|For pronunciation and definitions of 様 – see 橡 (“Acorn.; A tree in the genus Quercus.”).|
(This character, 様, is a variant form of 橡.)
- Go-on: よう (yō, Jōyō)←やう (yau, historical)
- Kan-on: よう (yō, Jōyō)←やう (yau, historical)
- Kun: さま (sama, 様, Jōyō)
As variant kanji of 橡:
- Go-on: ぞう (zō)←ざう (zau, historical)
- Kan-on: しょう (shō)←しやう (syau, historical)
- Kun: くぬぎ (kunugi, 様); とち (tochi, 様)
When written in 草体 (sōtai, “highly-cursive”) style, this kanji form is called 平様 (hira-zama, literally “common form”) to distinguish from the kyūjitai form 永様 (ei-sama, literally “永-form”), and its variant froms 次様 (tsugi-zama, for 檨, literally “次-form”) and 美様 (bi-zama, for 𣖙, literally “美-form”).
|Kanji in this term|
/jɨau/ → /jɔː/ → /joː/
- be like, look like, seem like, as if, having the likeness of
- Maru de yume o mite iru yō da.
- It felt as if I were dreaming.
- ano yarō no kinniku wa ānorudo shuwarutseneggā no yō ne
- That dude's muscles are like Arnold Schwarzenegger
- hi no tsuita chō no yōni hitotoki dake kagayaki
- Briefly radiate like a butterfly attracted to fire
- (as 様に (yō ni)) I hope; I pray; may
- Seikō shimasu yō ni.
- I wish [myself/you] success.
- In contemporary Japanese, this term is often written in hiragana.
- Traditional Japanese grammar analyzes this term as a 助動詞 (jodōshi, “auxiliary verb”), ようだ (yō da), from the noun 様 (yō) and the auxiliary verb だ.
- a female given name
|Kanji in this term|
From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of さ (sa, “that”, pronominal indicating a person, place, thing, or direction in the middle distance) + ま (ma, “likeness, way, similarity”, suffix indicating a quality).
(with rendaku when used as a suffix in some combinations)
- 方 (limited to the noun sense)
- a person's appearance (as of body, or style, or face, etc.)
- the state or situation of a thing
- Eibin. Kankaku ga surudoi koto. Mata, sono sama.
- Eibin. For the senses to be sharp. Or, the state of being such.
- the general trend, tenor, or feel of a thing
- one's social station, status, or quality
- the way or means of doing something, how one does something
- the reason or circumstances for something
- (archaic, honorific) second-person pronoun: you, you all
- (archaic, honorific) third-person distal pronoun: he, she, they (distant from both speaker and listener)
The pronoun senses have largely fallen into disuse. These originated as abbreviations of longer forms 君様 (kimisama, literally “lord + that way”), 方様 (katasama, literally “that side + that way”), or 貴様 (kisama, literally “noble + that way”), with the -sama suffix (see below) developing into an independent use.
- (honorific) polite personal suffix: honorable, Mr., Ms.
- Yoshida-sama ga koraremashita.
- Mr. [honorable] Yoshida has come here.
- (honorific) attaching to nouns or other nominals: a politeness marker that often has no direct translation, replacing copula です (desu)
- You have done well [honorable].
- attaching to specific nouns or other nominals: that way, that direction
- sakasama, yokosama
- backwards, sideways
- (archaic) attaching to verbs: just as (indicating the specific time when the verb is happening)
- attaching to verbs: the way of doing something, how one does something (often undergoes rendaku, changing -sama to -zama)
- how one sits
The -sama suffix after personal names is more respectful than the everyday さん (-san), and is generally only used when being very polite. Gender-neutral. This is sometimes glossed as honorable, but honorable is also used as a title, such as for judges or governors or certain ranks of nobility, whereas -sama is purely about politeness and relative social closeness.
|Kanji in this term|
- (childish) honorific suffix: Same as さま (sama) above