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It-様.png
U+69D8, 様
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-69D8

[U+69D7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+69D9]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Glyph originEdit

Japanese shinjitai Simplified from (𣴎); compare bottom of .

Right component is approximately 𦍌 + 氺.

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 木廿土水 (DTGE) or X木廿土水 (XDTGE), composition𣴎)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 546, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15352
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: not present, would follow volume 2, page 1284, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+69D8

ChineseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“appearance; form; shape; look; expression; air; etc.”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“Acorn.; A tree in the genus Quercus.”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. sir, madam (more respectful than Mr., Ms, Mrs., Miss)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
よう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

/jau//jɔː//joː/

From Middle Chinese (iɑ̀ng?, shape, style, pattern).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana よう, rōmaji , historical hiragana やう)

  1. way, style, appearance

AdjectiveEdit

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , -na inflection, hiragana よう, rōmaji , historical hiragana やう)

  1. be like, look like, seem like, as if, having the likeness of
    まるで (ゆめ) ()ている (よう)だ。
    Maru de yume o mite iru da.
    It felt as if I were dreaming.
  2. (as  (よう) (yō ni)) I hope; I pray; may
     (せい) (こう)しますように
    Seikō shimasu yō ni.
    I wish [myself/you] success.
InflectionEdit
Usage notesEdit
  • In contemporary Japanese, this term is often written in hiragana.
  • Traditional Japanese grammar analyzes this term as a 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb), ようだ (yō da), from the noun () and the auxiliary verb .

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
さま
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (sa, that, pronominal indicating a person, place, thing, or direction in the middle distance) +‎ (ma, likeness, way, similarity, suffix indicating a quality).[2]

PronunciationEdit

(with rendaku when used as a suffix in some combinations)

Alternative formsEdit

  • (limited to the noun sense)

NounEdit

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana さま, rōmaji sama)

  1. a person's appearance (as of body, or style, or face, etc.)
  2. the state or situation of a thing
     (えい) (びん)感覚 (かんかく) (するど)いこと。また、そのさま[1]
    Eibin. Kankaku ga surudoi koto. Mata, sono sama.
    Eibin. For the senses to be sharp. Or, the state of being such.
  3. the general trend, tenor, or feel of a thing
  4. one's social station, status, or quality
  5. the way or means of doing something, how one does something
  6. the reason or circumstances for something

PronounEdit

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana さま, rōmaji sama)

  1. (archaic, honorific) second-person pronoun: you, you all
  2. (archaic, honorific) third-person distal pronoun: he, she, they (distant from both speaker and listener)
Usage notesEdit

Used primarily by women of the red-light districts of the Edo period.[2]

The pronoun senses have largely fallen into disuse. These originated as abbreviations of longer forms 君様 (kimisama, literally lord + that way), 方様 (katasama, literally that side + that way), or 貴様 (kisama, literally noble + that way), with the -sama suffix (see below) developing into an independent use.

SuffixEdit

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana さま, rōmaji -sama, alternative reading ざま, rōmaji -zama)

  1. (honorific) polite personal suffix: honorable, Mr., Ms.
    吉田 (よしだ) (さま) ()られました。
    Yoshida-sama ga koraremashita.
    Mr. [honorable] Yoshida has come here.
  2. (honorific) attaching to nouns or other nominals: a politeness marker that often has no direct translation, replacing copula です desu
     () (ろう) (さま)
    Gokurōsama.
    You have done well [honorable].
  3. attaching to specific nouns or other nominals: that way, that direction
     (さか) (さま) (よこ) (さま)
    sakasama, yokosama
    backwards, sideways
  4. (archaic) attaching to verbs: just as (indicating the specific time when the verb is happening)
  5. attaching to verbs: the way of doing something, how one does something (often undergoes rendaku, changing -sama to -zama)
     (すわ) (さま)
    suwarisama
    how one sits
Usage notesEdit

The honorific senses developed out of euphemistic use of the noun sense of sama, “that way”, as an oblique form of reference, starting from around the Muromachi period.[2]

The -sama suffix after personal names is more respectful than the everyday さん (san), and is generally only used when being very polite. Gender-neutral. This is sometimes glossed as honorable, but honorable is also used as a title, such as for judges or governors or certain ranks of nobility, whereas -sama is purely about politeness and relative social closeness.

See alsoEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
ちゃま
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Childish version of sama above.[1] Compare the formation of ちゃん (chan) from さん (san).

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana ちゃま, rōmaji -chama)

  1. (childish) honorific suffix

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan