Module:ja

The module does various things related to Japanese.

Testcases

Module:ja/testcases

Functions

  1. hira_to_kata:
    {{#invoke:ja|hira_to_kata|おはようございます}} → オハヨウゴザイマス
  2. kata_to_hira:
    {{#invoke:ja|kata_to_hira|アメリカンアパレル}} → あめりかんあぱれる
  3. kana_to_romaji:
    {{#invoke:ja|kana_to_romaji|おやすみなさい}} → oyasuminasai
    {{#invoke:ja|kana_to_romaji|くゎく𛅐く𛅑く𛅒くぁくぃくぇくぉん}} → kwakwikwekwokwakwikwekwon
    {{#invoke:ja|kana_to_romaji|バックブリーカー}} → bakkuburīkā
    {{#invoke:ja|kana_to_romaji|「^すげぇ やん!」}} → “Sugē yan!”
  4. romaji_to_kata:
    {{#invoke:ja|romaji_to_kata|bakkurasshu}} → バックラッシュ
  5. script:
    {{#invoke:ja|script|どうも有難う御座います}} → Hira+Hani
    {{#invoke:ja|script|どうぞよろしく}} → Hira
    {{#invoke:ja|script|アメリカ合衆国}} → Kana+Hani
  6. sort:
    {{#invoke:ja|sort|バックラッシュ}} → |sort=はっくらっしゅ'
    {{#invoke:ja|sort|どうぞよろしく}} → |sort=とうぞよろしく'
    {{#invoke:ja|sort|アメリカ}} → |sort=あめりか

Uses

It is used by

  1. {{ja-verbconj}} and its subtemplates
  2. {{ja-noun}}, {{ja-verb}}, {{ja-adj}}, {{ja-pos}}, and {{ja-verb-suru}} which detect the script, generate romanizations, generate sort keys
  3. {{ja-readingcat}}, {{ja-readascat}} to generate romanizations, sort keys, count morae, perform checks
  4. {{ja-readings}} (Module:ja-kanji-readings) to generate romanizations and to convert from hiragana to katakana for on readings in Module:ja/data/jouyou-yomi

It was formerly used by {{ja-new}} (which uses it substitutively); the relevant code is now at Module:ja-new.


local export = {}

local titleObj = mw.title.getCurrentTitle()
local pagename = titleObj.text
local namespace = titleObj.nsText

local str_gsub = string.gsub
local find = mw.ustring.find
local length = mw.ustring.len
local trim = mw.text.trim
local split = mw.text.split
local sub, gsub = mw.ustring.sub, mw.ustring.gsub
local match, gmatch = mw.ustring.match, mw.ustring.gmatch
local to_cp, to_char = mw.ustring.codepoint, mw.ustring.char

local Jpan = require("Module:scripts").getByCode("Jpan")
local lang = require("Module:languages").getByCode("ja")

-- note that arrays loaded by mw.loadData cannot be directly used by gsub
local data = mw.loadData("Module:ja/data")

-- Unicode normalization often converts these to the corresponding CJK Unified Ideographs characters
local compat_ideo = mw.ustring.char(0xF900) .. "-" .. mw.ustring.char(0xFAD9)

export.data = {
	joyo_kanji = data.joyo_kanji,
	jinmeiyo_kanji = data.jinmeiyo_kanji,
	grade1 = data.grade1,
	grade2 = data.grade2,
	grade3 = data.grade3,
	grade4 = data.grade4,
	grade5 = data.grade5,
	grade6 = data.grade6
}

local function track(code)
	if type(code) ~= "string" then
		error("The track function requires a string as argument.")
	end
	require("Module:debug").track("ja/" .. code)
end

local function change_codepoint(added_value)
	return function(char)
		return to_char(to_cp(char) + added_value)
	end
end

function export.hira_to_kata(text)
	if type(text) == "table" then text = text.args[1] end

	return (gsub(gsub(text, '[ぁ-ゖ]', change_codepoint(96)), '[𛅐-𛅒]', change_codepoint(20)))
end

function export.kata_to_hira(text)
	if type(text) == "table" then text = text.args[1] end

	return (gsub(gsub(text, '[ァ-ヶ]', change_codepoint(-96)), '[𛅤-𛅦]', change_codepoint(-20)))
end

function export.fullwidth_to_halfwidth(text)
	if type(text) == "table" then text = text.args[1] end

	text = gsub(text, ' ', ' ')
	return (gsub(text, '[!-~]', change_codepoint(-65248)))
end

function export.kana_to_romaji(text, options)
	-- options: no_diacritics, keep_period, hist, phonetic
	local str_find = string.find

	if type(text) == "table" then
		text = text.args[1]
	end

	if not options then options = {} end

	-- conversions
	if not options.phonetic then
		text = gsub(text, '(%-)([はハ])$', '%1㊟㈛㊟%2') -- は as suffix (派 "-ha", etc.) and appearing at the end of string
		text = gsub(text, '(%-)([はハ]) ', '%1㊟㈛㊟%2 ') -- は as suffix and appearing mid-sentence
	end

	text = str_gsub(text, '%', '㊟㌫㊟') -- at [[見込む]], for example; avoid collision with % used in our ruby syntax
	text = str_gsub(text, '\'\'\'', '㊟⒝㊟')
	text = str_gsub(text, '<u>', '㊟㋑⒰㊟')
	text = str_gsub(text, '</u>', '㊟㋺⒰㊟')

	local text_styling = "㊟[㋑㋺⒝⒰]+㊟"

	-- avoid tampering with existing latin text: store it away
	local escape = {}
	local id = 0
	for latin in string.gmatch(text, "[a-z]+") do
		escape[id] = latin
		text = str_gsub(text, latin, "㊟㊕㊕㊟" .. id .. "㊟㊕㊕㊟")
		id = id + 1
	end

	-- special preformatting
	text = str_gsub(text, 'ヶげつ', 'かげつ')
	text = gsub(text, 'ヶ(' .. text_styling .. ')げつ', 'か%1げつ') -- 「'''ヶ'''げつ」
	text = str_gsub(text, 'ヶ', 'が')
	text = str_gsub(text, 'ヵ', 'か')
	text = gsub(text, '(.)[ゝヽ]', '%1%1')
	text = gsub(text, '(.)[ゞヾ]', function(char) return mw.ustring.toNFC(char .. char .. '゙') end) -- unicode hax

	-- [[Wiktionary:Grease_pit/2017/May#Formatting_for_individual_Japanese_readings]]
	if options.hist then
		text = gsub(text, '[やゆよわゐゑを]', '㊟⒳㊟%0')
		text = gsub(text, '.',
			{
				['し'] = 'si',
				['じ'] = 'zi',				
				['ち'] = 'ti',
				['ぢ'] = 'di',
				['つ'] = 'tu',
				['づ'] = 'du',
				['𛀁'] = 'ye',				
				['ゐ'] = 'wi',
				['を'] = 'wo'
			}
		)
	end

	text = export.hira_to_kata(text)
	text = gsub(text, '.', data.kr)
	text = export.fullwidth_to_halfwidth(text)

	if options.hist then
		text = str_gsub(text, 'oo', 'o.o')
		text = str_gsub(text, 'ou', 'o.u')
		text = str_gsub(text, 'h', 'f')

		local old = text
		text = str_gsub(text, 'i㊟⒳㊟y', 'y') -- くゐやう kwyau
		text = str_gsub(text, '([kg])u㊟⒳㊟w', '%1w')
		if old ~= text then
			--[=[
				There may be cases in which i or u is deleted incorrectly, and a
				period should be inserted.
				"Syncope" isn't quite accurate, as there wasn't a sound change.
				It's just an orthographic convention.
				[[Special:WhatLinksHere/Template:tracking/ja/mora syncope]]
			]=]
			--mw.log(str_gsub(old, '㊟⒳㊟', '')  .. ' → ' .. str_gsub(text, '㊟⒳㊟', '') )
			track('mora syncope')
		end

		text = str_gsub(text, '㊟⒳㊟', '') -- ゑつ wetsu
	end

	-- markup
	text = str_gsub(text, '%%', '.') -- ruby "percent sign" syntax
	text = gsub(text, '([ッ¤])%.', '%1') -- 「し を ぼっ.す」; 「るい%じん%えん」→「rui.jin¤.en¤」

	-- 「テェェェ」→「テェーー」 (avoid funky romaji effected by the "(テュ→)teユ→tyu" line below)
	local kogaki_vowels = {'ァ','ィ','ゥ','ェ','ォ'}
	for _, char in ipairs(kogaki_vowels) do
		text = gsub(text, '('..char..')('..char..'+)', function(a,b) return a .. mw.ustring.rep('ー', length(b)) end)
	end

	-- (ゲェ→)geェ→gee (note that this causes things like ウゥ→ū and ギィ→gī)
	text = gsub(text, '[aiueo][ァィゥェォ]', {['aァ']='aa',['iィ']='ii',['uゥ']='uu',['eェ']='ee',['oォ']='oo',})

	-- (クヮ→)kuヮ→kwa, (ク𛅤→)ku𛅤→kwi, (ク𛅥→)ku𛅥→kwe, (ク𛅦→)ku𛅦→kwo
	text = gsub(text, '[u]([ヮ𛅤𛅥𛅦])', {['ヮ']='wa',['𛅤']='wi',['𛅥']='we',['𛅦']='wo',})

	-- (クァ→)kuァ→kwa, (トァ→)toァ→twa, (ウィ→)uィ→wi
	text = gsub(text, '[uo]([ァィェォ])', {['ァ']='wa',['ィ']='wi',['ェ']='we',['ォ']='wo',})
	if not options.hist then
		-- (ツァ→)cwa→ca
		text = str_gsub(text, '([fvcsz])w', '%1')
	end

	-- (テュ→)teユ→tyu, (ギェ→)giェ→gye
	text = gsub(text, '[aiueo]([ャュェョ])', {['ャ']='ya',['ュ']='yu',['ェ']='ye',['ョ']='yo',})
	-- (ジュ→)jyu→ju
	text = gsub(text, '([xjq])y', '%1')

	-- (ティ→)teィ→ti (essentially forget about the vowel in between)
	text = gsub(text, '[aiueo]([ァィゥェォ])', {['ァ']='a',['ィ']='i',['ゥ']='u',['ェ']='e',['ォ']='o',})

	-- chouonpu and sokuon
	while str_find(text, '[aiueo]ー') or str_find(text, 'ッ *[bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz]') or find(text, 'ッ' .. text_styling .. '[bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz]') do
		text = str_gsub(text, '([aiueo])ー', '%1%1')
		text = str_gsub(text, 'ッ( *)([bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz])', '%2%1%2')
		text = gsub(text, 'ッ(' .. text_styling .. ')([bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz])', '%2%1%2')
	end
	-- deal with leftover sokuon not used as geminate
	text = str_gsub(text, 'ッ', '&#39;') -- Apostrophe

	-- (ん→)n¤
	text = str_gsub(text, '¤([aiueoy])', "'%1")
	text = str_gsub(text, '¤', '')

	-- は, へ
	if not options.phonetic and str_find(text, "h[ae]") then
		for i, v in ipairs{
			{ "ha", "wa" },
			{ "he", "e" }
		} do
			local thingy = '[^a-z.㊟-]' -- not sure what this should be named
			text = gsub(text, "(" .. thingy .. ")" .. v[1] .. "(" .. thingy .. ")", "%1" .. v[2] .. "%2")
			text = gsub(text, "(" .. thingy .. ")" .. v[1] .. "$", "%1" .. v[2])
			text = gsub(text, "^" .. v[1] .. "(" .. thingy .. ")", v[2] .. "%1")
			if find(text, text_styling) then
				text = gsub(text, "(" .. thingy .. ")" .. v[1] .. "(" .. text_styling .. thingy ..")", "%1" .. v[2] .. "%2")
				text = gsub(text, "(" .. thingy .. ")" .. v[1] .. "(" .. text_styling .. ")$", "%1" .. v[2] .. "%2")
				text = gsub(text, "(" .. thingy .. text_styling .. ")" .. v[1] .. "(" .. text_styling .. thingy ..")", "%1" .. v[2] .. "%2")
				text = gsub(text, "(" .. thingy .. text_styling .. ")" .. v[1] .. "(" .. text_styling .. ")$", "%1" .. v[2] .. "%2")
			end
		end
	end
	-- change only when
	--   ① not flanked by a-z or a period ("^sore wa nani$", "^hyappou no .he hitotsu$")
	--   ② at the end of the string and not preceded by a-z or a period ("^are wa$")
	--   ③ at the beginning of the string and not followed by a-z or a period ("^he ikou$") [not sure this is actually necessary, but I suppose it is consistent with ②]
	-- this also means that "^ha$" becomes "ha"
	-- period can be used next to the kana (either side) to force the "dumb" romanization (i.e. "ha", "he")

	-- fix sh, ch, ts
	local function handle_digraphs(geminate, intervening, main, following)
		--「めちゃ」→「mecha」
		--「めっちゃ」→「metcha」
		--「めっっちゃ」→「mettcha」
		local corresp_geminate_form = {['x']='s',['q']='t',['c']='t'}
		local corresp_main = {['x']='sh',['q']='ch',['c']='ts'}

		local geminate_repl, main_repl

		-- So as not to convert ch to tsh.
		if not following or main .. following ~= "ch" then
			main_repl = corresp_main[main]
		end

		if geminate ~= "" then
			geminate_repl = string.rep(corresp_geminate_form[main], #geminate)
		end

		return (geminate_repl or geminate) .. (intervening or "") .. (main_repl or main) .. (following or "")
	end

	local function handle_digraphs2(geminate, main, following)
		return handle_digraphs(geminate, nil, main, following)
	end

	text = gsub(text, '([xqc]+)(' .. text_styling .. ')([xqc])', handle_digraphs)
	text = gsub(text, '([xqc]*)([xqc])(.?)', handle_digraphs2)


	-- macrons
	-- Will cause problems if combined vowel-macron characters are used below.
	if not options.no_diacritics then
		if not options.phonetic then
			text = str_gsub(text, 'ou', 'ō')
		end
		local macron = to_char(0x304)
		text = str_gsub(
			text,
			'([oaeui])%1',
			'%1' .. macron
		)
	end

	-- remove markup and convert real periods
	if not options.keep_period then
		text = str_gsub(text, '%.', '')
		text = str_gsub(text, '。', '◆.◇')
	end

	--
	text = str_gsub(text, '◇◆', '')
	text = str_gsub(text, '◆◇', '')
	text = str_gsub(text, ' *◆ *', '')
	text = str_gsub(text, ' *◇ *', ' ')

	-- restore latin text
	text = str_gsub(text, "㊟㊕㊕㊟(%d+)㊟㊕㊕㊟", function(id) return escape[tonumber(id)] end)

	-- clean up spaces
	text = trim(text)
	text = str_gsub(text, ' +', ' ')

	-- remove double ampersands used in ruby
	text = str_gsub(text, '&&(.-)&&', '%1')

	-- uppercase markup
	text = str_gsub(text, "(%^)(㊟⒝㊟)", "%2%1") -- move ^ to an effective position if placed before bold markup
	text = str_gsub(text, "(%^)( )", "%2%1") -- same but with spaces
	text = gsub(text, '%^(.)', mw.ustring.upper) -- uppercase conversion

	-- clean up spaces again
	text = str_gsub(text, ' +', ' ')

	-- conversions
	text = str_gsub(text, '㊟⒝㊟', '\'\'\'')
	text = str_gsub(text, '㊟㋑⒰㊟', '<u>')
	text = str_gsub(text, '㊟㋺⒰㊟', '</u>')
	text = str_gsub(text, '㊟㈛㊟', '')
	text = str_gsub(text, '㊟㌫㊟', '%%')

	-- unicode NFC
	text = mw.ustring.toNFC(text)

	if find(text, '[ぁ-ー]') then
		track('k2r failure')
	end

	return text
end

-- removes spaces and hyphens from input
-- intended to be used when checking manual romaji to allow the
-- insertion of spaces or hyphens in manual romaji without appearing "wrong"
function export.rm_spaces_hyphens(f)
	local text = type(f) == 'table' and f.args[1] or f
	text = str_gsub(text, '.', { [' '] = '', ['-'] = '', ['.'] = '', ['\''] = '' })
	text = str_gsub(text, '&nbsp;', '')
	return text
end

function export.romaji_to_kata(f)
	local text = type(f) == 'table' and f.args[1] or f
	text = gsub(text, '.', data.rd)
	text = str_gsub(text, '(.)%1', {
		k = 'ッk', s = 'ッs', t = 'ッt', p = 'ッp',
		b = 'ッb', d = 'ッd', g = 'ッg', j = 'ッj'
	})
	text = str_gsub(text, 'tc', 'ッc')
	text = str_gsub(text, 'tsyu', 'ツュ')
	text = str_gsub(text, 'ts[uoiea]', {['tsu']='ツ',['tso']='ツォ',['tsi']='ツィ',['tse']='ツェ',['tsa']='ツァ'})
	text = str_gsub(text, 'sh[uoiea]', {['shu']='シュ',['sho']='ショ',['shi']='シ',['she']='シェ',['sha']='シャ'})
	text = str_gsub(text, 'ch[uoiea]', {['chu']='チュ',['cho']='チョ',['chi']='チ',['che']='チェ',['cha']='チャ'})
	text = str_gsub(text, "n[uoiea']?", {['nu']='ヌ',['no']='ノ',['ni']='ニ',['ne']='ネ',['na']='ナ'})
	text = str_gsub(text, '[wvtrpsnmlkjhgfdbzy][yw]?[uoiea]', data.rk)
	text = str_gsub(text, "n'?", 'ン')
	text = str_gsub(text, '[aeiou]', {
		u = 'ウ', o = 'オ', i = 'イ', e = 'エ', a = 'ア'
	})
	return text
end

-- expects: any mix of kanji and kana
-- determines the script types used
-- e.g. given イギリス人, it returns Kana+Hani
function export.script(f)
	text, script = type(f) == 'table' and f.args[1] or f, {}

	if find(text, '[ぁ-ゖ]') or find(text, '[𛅐-𛅒]') then
		table.insert(script, 'Hira')
	end
	-- TODO: there are two kanas.  This should insert Kata.
	if find(text, '[ァ-ヺー]') or find(text, '[𛅤-𛅦]') then
		table.insert(script, 'Kana')
	end
	-- 一 is unicode 4e00, previously used 丁 is 4e01
	if find(text, '[㐀-䶵一-鿌' .. compat_ideo .. '𠀀-𯨟]') then
		table.insert(script, 'Hani')
	end
	-- matching %a should have worked but matched the end of every string
	if find(text, '[a-zA-ZāēīōūĀĒĪŌŪa-zA-Z]') then
		table.insert(script, 'Romaji')
	end
	if find(text, '[0-90-9]') then
		table.insert(script, 'Number')
	end
	if find(text, '[〆々]') then
		table.insert(script, 'Abbreviation')
	end

	return table.concat(script, '+')
end

-- when counting morae, most small hiragana belong to the previous mora,
-- so for purposes of counting them, they can be removed and the characters
-- can be counted to get the number of morae.  The exception is small tsu,
-- so data.nonmora_to_empty maps all small hiragana except small tsu.
function export.count_morae(text)
	if type(text) == "table" then
		text = text.args[1]
	end
	-- convert kata to hira (hira is untouched)
	text = export.kata_to_hira(text)
	-- remove all of the small hiragana such as ょ except small tsu
	text = gsub(text,'.',data.nonmora_to_empty)
	-- remove zero-width spaces
	text = gsub(text, '‎', '')
	-- return number of characters, which should be the number of morae
	return length(text)
end

-- accepts: any mix of kana
-- returns: a hiragana sort key designed for WMF software
-- this is like sort() but doesn't return |sort=sortkey,
-- just the sort key itself, but unlike sort(), this
-- replaces the long vowel mark with its vowel
function export.jsort(text)
	if type(text) == "table" then
		text = text.args[1]
	end
	local textsub = ''
	local convertedten = ''
	local result = ''
	local len = 1

	-- remove western spaces, hyphens, and periods
	-- diff=41967612: also remove caret
	text = gsub(text, '[ %-%.%^]', '')

	text = export.kata_to_hira(text)

	-- if the first character has dakuten, replace it with the corresponding
	-- character without dakuten and add an apostrophe to the end, e.g.
	-- がす > かす'
	if gsub(sub(text,1,1),'.',data.dakuten) == '' then
		len = length(text)
		textsub = sub(text,2,len)
		convertedten = gsub(sub(text,1,1),'.',data.tenconv)
		text = (convertedten .. textsub .. "'")
	else
		-- similar thing but with handuken and two apostrophes, e.g. ぱす -> はす''
		if gsub(sub(text,1,1),'.',data.handakuten) == '' then
			len = length(text)
			textsub = sub(text,2,len)
			convertedten = gsub(sub(text,1,1),'.',data.tenconv)
			text = (convertedten .. textsub .. "''")
		end
	end
	-- replace the long vowel mark with the vowel that it stands for
	for key,value in pairs(data.longvowels) do
		text = gsub(text,key,value)
	end
	return text
end

-- returns a sort key with |sort= in front, e.g.
-- |sort=はつぐん' if given ばつぐん
function export.sort(f)
	local text = type(f) == 'table' and f.args[1] or f
	local textsub = ''
	local convertedten = ''
	local result = ''
	local len = 1
	local kyreplace = ''
	kyreplace = gsub(text,'[ァ-ヺ]', '')
	if kyreplace == '' then
		result = ('|' .. 'sort' .. '=')
	end
	text = export.kata_to_hira(text)
	if gsub(sub(text,1,1),'.',data.dakuten) == '' then
		if kyreplace == '' then else result = ('|' .. 'sort' .. '=') end
		len = length(text)
		textsub = sub(text,2,len)
		convertedten = gsub(sub(text,1,1),'.',data.tenconv)
		result = (result .. convertedten .. textsub .. "'")
	else
		if gsub(sub(text,1,1),'.',data.handakuten) == '' then
			if kyreplace == '' then else result = ('|' .. 'sort' .. '=') end
			len = length(text)
			textsub = sub(text,2,len)
			convertedten = gsub(sub(text,1,1),'.',data.tenconv)
			result = (result .. convertedten .. textsub .. "''")
		else
			if kyreplace == '' then
				result = (result .. text)
			end
		end
	end
	return result
end

-- returns the "stem" of a verb or -i adjective, that is the term minus the final character
function export.definal(f)
	return sub(f.args[1],1,(length(f.args[1])-1))
end

function export.remove_ruby_markup(text)
	return (string.gsub(text, "[%^%-%. %%]", ""))
end

-- do the work of Template:ja-kanji
function export.kanji(frame)
	local pagename = mw.title.getCurrentTitle().text
	-- only do this if this entry is a kanji page and not some user's page
	if namespace == "" then
		local params = {
			grade = {},
			rs = {},
			shin = {},
			kyu = {},
			head = {},
		}
		local args = require("Module:parameters").process(frame:getParent().args, params)

		local rs = args["rs"] or require("Module:zh-sortkey").makeSortKey(pagename, "ja")
		local shin = args["shin"]
		local kyu = args["kyu"]
		local head = args["head"]

		local grade_replacements = {
			c = "7",
			n = "8",
			uc = "9",
			r = "0",
		}
		local grade = tonumber(args["grade"])
		grade = grade_replacements[grade] or grade

		local wikitext = {}
		local categories = {}

		local catsort = rs or pagename

		-- display the kanji itself at the top at 275% size
		table.insert(wikitext, '<div><span lang="ja" class="Jpan" style="font-size:275%; line-height:1;">' .. (args["head"] or pagename) .. '</span></div>')

		-- display information for the grade

		-- if grade was not specified, determine it now
		if not grade then
			grade = export.kanji_grade(pagename)
		end

		local in_parenthesis = {}
		local grade_links = {
			[1] = "[[w:Kyōiku kanji|grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji]]",
			[2] = "[[w:Kyōiku kanji|grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji]]",
			[3] = "[[w:Kyōiku kanji|grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji]]",
			[4] = "[[w:Kyōiku kanji|grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji]]",
			[5] = "[[w:Kyōiku kanji|grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji]]",
			[6] = "[[w:Kyōiku kanji|grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji]]",
			[7] = "[[w:Jōyō kanji|common “Jōyō” kanji]]",
			[8] = "[[w:Jinmeiyō kanji|“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names]]",
			[9] = "[[w:Hyōgai kanji|uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji]]",
			[0] = "[[w:Radical_(Chinese_character)|Radical]]",
		}
		if grade_links[grade] then
			table.insert(in_parenthesis, grade_links[grade])
		else
			table.insert(categories, "[[Category:Japanese kanji missing grade|" .. catsort .. "]]")
		end

		-- link to shinjitai if shinjitai was specified, and link to kyujitai if kyujitai was specified

		if kyu then
			table.insert(in_parenthesis, '[[shinjitai]] kanji, [[kyūjitai]] form <span lang="ja" class="Jpan">[[' .. kyu .. '#Japanese|' .. kyu .. ']]</span>')
		elseif shin then
			table.insert(in_parenthesis, '[[kyūjitai]] kanji, [[shinjitai]] form <span lang="ja" class="Jpan">[[' .. shin .. '#Japanese|' .. shin .. ']]</span>')
		end
		table.insert(wikitext, "''(" .. table.concat(in_parenthesis, ",&nbsp;") .. "'')")

		-- add categories
		table.insert(categories, "[[Category:Japanese Han characters|" .. catsort .. "]]")
		local grade_categories = {
			[1] = "Grade 1 kanji",
			[2] = "Grade 2 kanji",
			[3] = "Grade 3 kanji",
			[4] = "Grade 4 kanji",
			[5] = "Grade 5 kanji",
			[6] = "Grade 6 kanji",
			[7] = "Common kanji",
			[8] = "Kanji used for names",
			[9] = "Uncommon kanji",
			[0] = "CJKV radicals",
		}
		table.insert(categories, "[[Category:" .. (grade_categories[grade] or error("The grade " .. grade .. " is invalid.")) .. "|" .. (grade == "0" and " " or catsort) .. "]]")

		-- error category
		if not rs then
			table.insert(categories, "[[Category:Japanese kanji missing radical and strokes]]")
		end

		return table.concat(wikitext, "") .. table.concat(categories, "\n")
	end
end

local grade1_pattern = ('[' .. data.grade1 .. ']')
local grade2_pattern = ('[' .. data.grade2 .. ']')
local grade3_pattern = ('[' .. data.grade3 .. ']')
local grade4_pattern = ('[' .. data.grade4 .. ']')
local grade5_pattern = ('[' .. data.grade5 .. ']')
local grade6_pattern = ('[' .. data.grade6 .. ']')
local secondary_pattern = ('[' .. data.secondary .. ']')
local jinmeiyo_kanji_pattern = ('[' .. data.jinmeiyo_kanji .. ']')
local hyogaiji_pattern = ('[^' .. data.joyo_kanji .. data.jinmeiyo_kanji .. ']')

function export.kanji_grade(kanji)
	if type(kanji) == "table" then
		kanji = kanji.args[1]
	end

	if find(kanji, hyogaiji_pattern) then return 9
	elseif find(kanji, jinmeiyo_kanji_pattern) then return 8
	elseif find(kanji, secondary_pattern) then return 7
	elseif find(kanji, grade6_pattern) then return 6
	elseif find(kanji, grade5_pattern) then return 5
	elseif find(kanji, grade4_pattern) then return 4
	elseif find(kanji, grade3_pattern) then return 3
	elseif find(kanji, grade2_pattern) then return 2
	elseif find(kanji, grade1_pattern) then return 1
	end

	return false
end

return export