This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Likely of imitative origin. See *gerh₂ḗn (crane) for a similar onomatopoeia-based bird name.

Nonetheless, Hyllested and others have suggested a (genetic) relationship with Proto-Finno-Ugric *joŋkće, with regular correspondence of Proto-Uralic *j- and Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰ-.[1] Similarity to Proto-Turkic *kāz (goose) is often discussed as well, but this is likely coincidental.


*ǵʰh₂éns f[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

  1. goose


Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *ǵʰh₂éns
genitive *ǵʰh₂n̥sés
singular dual plural
nominative *ǵʰh₂éns *ǵʰh₂énsh₁(e) *ǵʰh₂énses
vocative *ǵʰh₂éns *ǵʰh₂énsh₁(e) *ǵʰh₂énses
accusative *ǵʰh₂énsm̥ *ǵʰh₂énsh₁(e) *ǵʰh₂énsm̥s
genitive *ǵʰh₂n̥sés *? *ǵʰh₂n̥sóHom
ablative *ǵʰh₂n̥sés *? *ǵʰh₂n̥smós
dative *ǵʰh₂n̥séy *? *ǵʰh₂n̥smós
locative *ǵʰh₂éns, *ǵʰh₂énsi *? *ǵʰh₂n̥sú
instrumental *ǵʰh₂n̥séh₁ *? *ǵʰh₂n̥smís


  • Proto-Albanian: *gatā
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *źansís / *gansís (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *gansis (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *gans (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *kʰā́n
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *ȷ́ʰansás (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *hāns (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ Hyllested, Adam (2008), “Internal Reconstruction vs. External Comparison: The Case of the Indo-Uralic Laryngeals”, in Jens Elmegård Rasmussen & Thomas Olander, editors, Internal Reconstruction in Indo-European: Methods, Results, and Problems : Section Papers from the XVI International Conference on Historical Linguistics, University of Copenhagen, 11th–15th August, 2003[1], Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, →OCLC, page 118 of 111–136: “VI”
  2. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “χήν”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1630
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ānser”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 44
  4. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*gansi-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 151
  5. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998), “gatë”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 111
  6. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*gǫ̑sь”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 184
  7. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “žąsis”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 514
  8. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*gans-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 168