This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. peg, club

Reconstruction notesEdit

Various points suggest a post-Indo-European borrowing from an unknown source:

  • The phoneme *b, which is rare and of somewhat doubtful status.
  • The consistent occurrence of *a.
  • The alternation between *k and geminate *kk across the descendants.

According to Oxford's Introduction to proto-Indo-European[2], the initial *b- may have been due to the informal ("popular") nature of the term. Kroonen[3] and De Vaan[4] reconstruct no Proto-Indo-European form at all.

Derived termsEdit

  • *bak-o-s
    • Balto-Slavic: *bakas
  • *bakk-o-s
  • *bak-sḱ- (possibly)
  • *bak-tro-m, *bak-tlo-m
  • *bak-yéh₂


  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 93
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 246
  3. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*pagila-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 395
  4. 4.0 4.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “baculum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 67
  5. ^ Vasmer, Max (1964–1973), “бок”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Oleg Trubačóv, Moscow: Progress
  6. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “βακτηρία”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 194