This Proto-Kartvelian entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Kartvelian edit

Proto-Kartvelian cardinal numbers
 <  3 4 5  > 
    Cardinal : *otxo-

Etymology edit

According to Klimov, borrowed from Proto-Indo-European *(H)oḱto- (four fingers) of which *oḱtṓw (eight) was the dual form.

Numeral edit


  1. four

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Климов, Г. А. (1977) “Картвельское *otxo- ‘четыре’ ~ индоевропейское *ok̂to- [Kartvelian *otxo- ‘four’ ~ Indo-European *ok̂to-]”, in Этимология[1] (in Russian), number 1975, Moscow, pages 162–163
  • Климов, Г. А. (1994) Древнейшие индоевропеизмы картвельских языков [The Oldest Indo-Europeanisms in Kartvelian Languages] (in Russian), Moscow: Nasledie, →ISBN, pages 59–63
  • Klimov, G. A. (1994) “L'analogie kartvélienne de l'IE *ok̂tō(u̯)=”, in Roland Bielmeier, Reinhard Stempel, editors, Indogermanica et Caucasica: Festschrift für Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65. Geburtstag (in French), Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, pages 472–478
  • Klimov, G. A. (1998) Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages (Trends in linguistics. Documentation; 16), New York, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, page 145
  • Fähnrich, Heinz (1994) Grammatik der altgeorgischen Sprache (in German), Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, page 251
  • Penrixi (Fähnrich), Hainc, Sarǯvelaʒe, Zurab (2000) Kartvelur enata eṭimologiuri leksiḳoni [Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages] (in Georgian), 2nd edition, Tbilisi: Tbilisi Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani State University Press, pages 365–367
  • Fähnrich, Heinz (2007) Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary] (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.18) (in German), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 325–326
  • Blažek, Václav (1999) Numerals: comparative-etymological analyses of numeral systems and their implications (Opera Universitatis Masarykianae Brunensis, Facultas philosophica; 322)‎[2], Brno: Masarykova Univerzita, pages 82–83
  • Bjørn, Rasmus (2019) “Nouns and Foreign Numerals: Anatolian ‘Four’ and the Development of the PIE Decimal System”, in Matilde Serangeli and Thomas Olander, editors, Dispersals and Diversification: Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives on the Early Stages of Indo-European (Brill's Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics; 19), Leiden and Boston: Brill, →DOI, pages 62–64