This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Uralic edit

Etymology edit

One of the few words found in all languages of the traditional Finno-Ugric group, but absent from Samoyedic (contrast Proto-Samoyedic *nakur).

Reconstruction edit

The Hungarian and Mansi forms point to *kormɜ. Kulonen (2002) and Janhunen (2009) suggest that this may be more original than the forms pointing to *-lm- (especially given that original Proto-Uralic *-lm-, for example in *śilmä, does not otherwise behave like in this lexeme); according to Kulonen, these could result from analogy with *neljä (four).

Numeral edit

Proto-Uralic cardinal numbers
 <  2 3 4  > 
    Cardinal : *kolme


  1. three

Descendants edit

From *kormɜ:

  • Ugric:
    • Hungarian: három
    • Mansi: хӯрум (hūrum)

From *kolme:

  • Ugric:
  • Proto-Permic: *kwiń (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Mari: *kŭm (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Mordvinic: *kolmə
  • Proto-Samic: *kolmë (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Finnic: *kolmë (see there for further descendants)

Related terms edit

References edit

  • Janhunen, Juha. 2009. "Proto-Uralic—what, where and when?" In: The quasquicentennial of the Finno-Ugrian Society. Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia 258, pp. 57–78.
  • Kulonen, Ulla-Maija. 2002. "Suomalaiset ja suomalais-ugrilaiset luvut ja lukusanat" ('Finnish and Finno-Ugric numbers and numerals'). In: Graham Flegg, Lukujen historia: Sormilla laskemisesta tietokoneisiin, pp. 258–301. Helsinki: Art House. →ISBN

External links edit