This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Frequently compared with its equivalents in other language families of Eurasia, such as Proto-Indo-European *túh₂, Northern Yukaghir тэт (tet), Proto-Mongolic *ci. Most of these comparisons would require an earlier form to be *ti.


The Samic and Mordvinic reflexes suggest a variant *tun, of unclear origin. In some sources, the Samoyedic forms have also been considered to derive from this. However, according to Janhunen (2013), its inflection indicates an earlier front-vocalic form, implying that only a single variant *tinä is to be reconstructed to Proto-Uralic.


*tinä (plural *te)

  1. you, thou


From *tinä:

  • Samoyedic: *tən
    • Nganasan: тәнә (tənə)
    • Enets:
      • Tundra Enets: [Term?] (toďi)
    • Selkup: тан (tan), тат (tat)
    • Kamassian: тһан (tʰan)
    • Mator: [script needed] (танъ)
  • Ugric:
    • Hungarian: te
  • Permic:
    • Komi:
      • Komi-Permyak: те (te)
      • Komi-Zyrian: тэ (te)
    • Udmurt: тон (ton)
  • Mari:
  • Finnic: *cinä (stem *cinu-) (see there for further descendants)

From *tun:

  • Mordvinic:
  • Samic: *ton (see there for further descendants)
    • Western Samic:
    • Eastern Samic:
      • Inari Sami: tun


  • Janhunen, Juha. 2013. "Personal pronouns in core Altaic". In: Robbeets, Martine; Cuyckens, Hubert (eds.) Shared Grammaticalization. With special focus on the Transeurasian languages. John Benjamins.
  • Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó

External linksEdit

  • Entry #1083 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.