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Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/túh₂

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Contents

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

Alternate FormsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Often compared with similar pronouns in other language families of Eurasia, e.g. Proto-Uralic *tinä. Kloekhorst (2008) proposes that per Anatolian forms such as Hittite 𒍣𒄿𒅅 (zīk), *i rather than *u should be reconstructed in the nominative, which would then suggest an original Indo-Uralic root *ti-.

PronounEdit

*túh₂

  1. you, thou (second-person singular pronoun)

InflectionEdit

Andrew Sihler's reconstruction
singular dual plural
nominative *tī̆ (tū̆) *yuh₁ (?yūh₁) *yūs (?yuHs)
accusative *t-wé ~ *te *uh₁-wé ~ *wō̆h₁ *usmé ~ *wō̆s
genitive *té-we ~ *tos (adj.) ? *usóm ~ *wō̆s
ablative *tw-ét ? *usm-ét
dative *tébʰi ~ *tey, *toy ? *usm-éy ~ *wō̆s
Donald Ringe's reconstruction
singular dual plural
nominative *túh₂ *yú *yū́
accusative *twé ~ *te *uh₃wé ~ *woh₃ *uswé ~ *wos
genitive *téwe ~ *toy ? ? ~ *wos
dative *tébʰye ~ *toy ? ? ~ *wos
Alwin Kloekhorst's reconstruction
Proto-Nuclear-Indo-European singular plural
nominative *tuH *yuH
accusative *twe(ge) ~ *twē (?) *us ~ *wōs (?)
genitive *tewe ~ *toi ?
dative *tebʰi ~ *toy ?
oblique *twe- *us- ~ *wos
Outer-Anatolian IE singular plural
nominative *tuH *yuH
oblique *tew-/*tu- *us-
enclitic *toy *wos
Proto-Indo-European singular plural
nominative *tíh₁ ?
accusative *tu- ?
oblique *tu- ?
Robert Beekes' reconstruction
singular plural
nominative *tuH *yuH
accusative *twé *usmé ~ *wōs
genitive *téwe ~ *toy *yus(er)o- ~ *wos
ablative *twed *usmed
dative *tébʰio ~ *toi *usmey
locative *tóy *usmi
instrumental *tóy ?
poss. adj. *twos *usos
Frederik Kortlandt's reconstruction
singular dual plural
nominative *tu- *yuh₁- *yu-
accusative *twe *uh₁e *usme
genitive *tewe *woh₁ *wos
ablative *twed *uh₁ed *usmed
dative *tubʰi *uh₁ebʰi *usmei
locative *toy *uh₁i *usmi
poss. adj. *twos - *usos
Michiel de Vaan's reconstruction
singular plural
nominative *tí(H) *yúH(s)
accusative *twé *wōs
genitive *téwe ~ *toy *wos/*wes
ablative *twéd ?
dative *toy ?
poss. adj. *twos *us-tero-s?

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Coordinate termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008). "Some Indo-Uralic Aspects of Hittite". The Journal of Indo-European Studies 36:1-2.
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN