cmn 該用戶母語中文
cmn-4 該用戶的國語還算標準




Next step:

  • Korean romaniser
  • Japanese romaniser
  • Japanese conjugator
  • Korean conjugator

влияние-wise Latin and Chinese are the same, except that Latin words tend to be distorted semantically, sometimes quite significantly, and that Latin is dead.

一 OC *qlig > MC ʔiIt > MSC i˥ > ...?

我 OC *ŋaalʔ > MC na上 > MSC uo˨˩˧ > ...?

力 OC *[g]rɯɡ > MC liek > MSC li˥˩ > ...?

origin of hanzi, phono-semantic characters - most have etymological connections to the phonetic component? Were inventors of hanzi aware of the phonological processes in word formation in Old Chinese and proto-Chinese? s- causative, voiceless/voiced initial alteration, l- prefix

各 (k-) 落 骆 珞 洛 (l-) 格 咯 胳 (g-) 恪 (kʰ-) -> 各 OC *klaag (consonant cluster)

黑 (x-) 墨 默 (m-) -> 黑 OC *hmlɯɯg

兑 (t-) 说 (ʂ-) 悦 (j-) -> 兑 OC *g-loods

禀 (p-) 凛 懔 廪 (l-) -> 禀 OC *prɯmʔ

佥 签 (tɕʰ-) 脸 敛 殓 (l-) 捡 检 睑 剑 (tɕ-) 验 (i-) -> 佥 OC *skhlam

Middle Korean, 1500s, ptis -> ttis 뜻, psi -> ssi 씨. some modern fortis and aspirated < merger of lenis. < < consonant cluster

realisation of coda ㅅㅌㅈㅋㅊ (-t̚); CVCC realised differently in different environments. 값 (kaps)

Japanese prenasalisation 被覆形 露出形 final -t 雪隱 setin renjō

MSJ watashi < EMJ wa, ware < OJ wa(re) (re: particle), MSK na, OC *ŋaalʔ

Sinification K&J disastrous こうしょう 전화

Hangeul readability to an unfamiliar reader? supremacy? vowel harmony ↗ ↙

Vietnamese tonogenesis. OC with tones?

can a language survive in a speaker num. 1:100 environment? for how many generations?

if you as speaker of a dialect decides not to speak to your children in that dialect like others, the dialect is likely to co-pass away with you. mất

chinese becomes prestigious when vietnam is under chinese control. Likewise for japanese and korean. massive borrowing. But when chinese falls under Manchu control, Manchu language dies.