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  1. Virtual Human Markup Language, an XML-based language used to accommodate the various aspects of human-computer interaction.
    • 2001, Marriott et al., "VHML - Directing a Talking Head", in Jiming Liu, ed., Active Media Technology: 6th International Computer Science Conference, page 90,
      VHML is currently being used in several Talking Head applications as well.
    • 2004, Matthias Klusch et al., "Interactive Information Agents and Interfaces", in Robert W. Proctor and Kim-Phuong L. Vu (eds.), Handbook Of Human Factors In Web Design,[1] Routledge, →ISBN, page 229,
      As an alternative to character-specific adjuncts to programming languages, XML-compliant character scripting languages have been be defined, such as VHML ( or MPML (
    • 2004, Patrick Gebhard, Martin Klesen, and Thomas Rist, “Coloring Multi-character Conversations through the Expression of Emotions”, in Elisabeth André et al. (eds.), Affective Dialogue Systems: Tutorial and Research Workshop, ADS 2004 Proceedings,[2] Springer, →ISBN, page 138,
      […] this approach shares similarities with proposals for character scripting languages comprising emotion tags, such as AML, APML, MPML, or VHML.