Wiktionary:About Sumerian

Sumerian entriesEdit


  • Sumerian entries are always created in cuneiform script.
  • The best practice is to copy/paste it form the ePSD2 site.
  • To type cuneiform signs when you know their transliteration you can use one of the following online editors:
  • We use the {{sux-signs}} template right under ==Sumerian== to link the individual signs in the term. See: π’‚Όπ’…ˆπ’„„ (ama-ar-giβ‚„ /amargi/)
  • In individual cuneiform entries (like π’‚Ό (ama), π’€­ (digΜƒir), etc.) we add the {{sux-signsee}} template under the ===See also=== section (right before ===References===).


  • We use the parameter |tr= in the {{head}}, {{l}}, {{m}}, etc. templates to give the transliteration of Sumerian cuneiform signs.
  • We transliterate each cuneiform sign in lowercase, separated by a dash (-). See for example π’€€π’‚΅π’„  (a-ga-am /agam/).
  • If more than one transliteration is possible for a sign, we can enter more then one by separating them with a comma (,). See for example 𒆍 (kaβ‚‚, kanβ‚„ /kan/).
  • For indexing we use subscripts numbers (β‚€ ₁ β‚‚ ₃ β‚„ β‚… ₆ ₇ β‚ˆ ₉). You can find them at the bottom of the edit window if you choose Akkadian and Sumerian from the drop-down menu on the left.
  • We use the same transliteration system used by ePSD2, with the only exception of the sound /Ε‹/, that we transliterate as gΜƒ. You can insert this letter by choosing Akkadian and Sumerian from the drop-down menu on the bottom left of the editing window and clicking on "gΜƒ" (or "GΜƒ" if you need it capitalised). This is done to keep consistency with older transliteration/Akkadian sumerograms that might only have a g where more recent reconstructions have gΜƒ, and facilitate their searching. The character βŸ¨Ε‹βŸ© used in some publications doesn't have the same flexibility.
  • Determinatives will use the template {{sup}}. See for example 𒀭𒂗𒆀 (den-lilβ‚‚ /Enlil/).


  • We use the parameter |ts= in the {{head}}, {{l}}, {{m}}, etc. templates to give the normalisation of a Sumerian word. A word's normalisation is the reconstructed "pronunciation" of a Sumerian word and correspond to the spelling of entries on ePSD2. See for example π’€€π’€Šπ’€ a'abak.
  • When a word's transliteration is identical to its normalisation, we will only use the transliteration parameter (|tr=. See for example π’€― (mul).
  • When a word's transliteration is not identical to its normalisation, we will always indicate its normalisation, even if the only difference is the lack of an index. See for example π’€³ (uruβ‚„ /uru/).
  • Proper nouns are capitalised. See for example 𒂍𒐐 (eβ‚‚-ninnu /Eninnu/).
  • To separate two vowels belonging to different elements of a compound, we use the straight apostrophe ( ' ). See for example π’€€π’€Šπ’€ (a'abak).
  • We indicate vowel contraction with a circumflex (similarly to how it is done in normalizing Akkadian lemmas). See for example 𒁀 (ba /bΓ’/).
  • Enclitic particles (case endings, possessives, etc) and verbal elements are written attached to the noun or verb they refer to without a dash. See for example 𒆠𒁀 (ki-ba /kibΓ’/).


In the following two cases, we use the {{sux-verb}} template.

  • Compound verbs
    Sumerian phrasal verbs (known in the field as "compound verbs") follow the layout of π’† π’‰˜ (ki agΜƒβ‚‚ /ki agΜƒ/).
  • Verbs with reduplicated forms
    Verbs with reduplicated forms follow the layout of π’†― (ku₇ /kud/) and π’†―π’†― (ku₇-ku₇ /ku-ku/).

Alternative formsEdit

  • Alternative forms are given using the {{sux-alts}} template right under ==Sumerian== (if they refer to the main entry) or under ===Etymology=== if they refer to just one individual meaning of the entry. See for example π’€²π’‹™π’€­ (anΕ‘ekungaβ‚‚ /kunga/) and 𒁺 (tumβ‚‚ /tum/).


  • Emesal words corresponding to Emegir (Standard Sumerian) entries are given using the template {{sux-registers}}. See for example π’…† (igi). For the template {{sux-registers}} to work, you will need to add the corresponding Emegir and Emesal data to the list in Module:sux-registers/data (follow the format of previus entries).


  • In this section we try to always give the link to the corresponding ePSD2 entry. We do so with the references template {{R:sux:ePSD2|<--ePSD2 entry number-->|<--normalisation-->|<--mening-->}}. We only give the meaning when it's needed to differentiate two references that would otherwise have the same normalisation. See for example:
    1. Standard ePSD2 reference: π’€― (mul)
    2. ePSD2 references differentiated by their meanings: π’…—
  • You can find the ePSD2 entry number by right-clicking on the normalisation of an ePSD2 entry and selecting copy link address. If you paste the address, you will get a string like this:
The entry number is the name of the html page minus ".html". In our example that would be: o0023213.

Further readingEdit

  • We use the {{pedia}} template to link eventual Wikipedia articles under this section. See an example at π’‚Όπ’…ˆπ’„„ (ama-ar-giβ‚„ /amargi/).

Romanization of cuneiform signsEdit

  • To facilitate searches of cuneiform signs by their transliteration, we use a simplified romanization system that represents all diacritics/subscript indexes in a way that makes them easy to type on a keyboard. This is identical to the one used on the ePSD2 site. Most letters are identical to the proper transliteration system. Here is a list of those that are different:
Transliteration Romanization
g̃ j
Ε‘ sz
αΈ« h
β‚€-₉ 0 - 9
β‚“ X (see for example: sigX)
Here you can see all currently existing Sumerian romanisation entries: Category:Sumerian_romanizations
  • There are still a lot of romanizations missing. If you find that a romanization doesn't exist, you can create it following the model of mesz3.

Grammars and dictionariesEdit