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XhosaEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

VerbEdit

-dumisa?

  1. (transitive) to praise

InflectionEdit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


ZuluEdit

VerbEdit

-dumisa?

  1. (transitive) to praise

InflectionEdit

Tone unknown
Infinitive ukudumisa
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukudumisa ukungadumisi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular dumisa -dumise
Plural dumisani -dumiseni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyadumisa, ngidumisa engidumisayo, engidumisa ngidumisa angidumisi engingadumisi ngingadumisi
2nd singular uyadumisa, udumisa odumisayo, odumisa udumisa awudumisi ongadumisi ungadumisi
1st plural siyadumisa, sidumisa esidumisayo, esidumisa sidumisa asidumisi esingadumisi singadumisi
2nd plural niyadumisa, nidumisa enidumisayo, enidumisa nidumisa anidumisi eningadumisi ningadumisi
Class 1 uyadumisa, udumisa odumisayo, odumisa edumisa akadumisi ongadumisi engadumisi
Class 2 bayadumisa, badumisa abadumisayo, abadumisa bedumisa abadumisi abangadumisi bengadumisi
Class 3 uyadumisa, udumisa odumisayo, odumisa udumisa awudumisi ongadumisi ungadumisi
Class 4 iyadumisa, idumisa edumisayo, edumisa idumisa ayidumisi engadumisi ingadumisi
Class 5 liyadumisa, lidumisa elidumisayo, elidumisa lidumisa alidumisi elingadumisi lingadumisi
Class 6 ayadumisa, adumisa adumisayo, adumisa edumisa awadumisi angadumisi engadumisi
Class 7 siyadumisa, sidumisa esidumisayo, esidumisa sidumisa asidumisi esingadumisi singadumisi
Class 8 ziyadumisa, zidumisa ezidumisayo, ezidumisa zidumisa azidumisi ezingadumisi zingadumisi
Class 9 iyadumisa, idumisa edumisayo, edumisa idumisa ayidumisi engadumisi ingadumisi
Class 10 ziyadumisa, zidumisa ezidumisayo, ezidumisa zidumisa azidumisi ezingadumisi zingadumisi
Class 11 luyadumisa, ludumisa oludumisayo, oludumisa ludumisa aludumisi olungadumisi lungadumisi
Class 14 buyadumisa, budumisa obudumisayo, obudumisa budumisa abudumisi obungadumisi bungadumisi
Class 15 kuyadumisa, kudumisa okudumisayo, okudumisa kudumisa akudumisi okungadumisi kungadumisi
Class 17 kuyadumisa, kudumisa okudumisayo, okudumisa kudumisa akudumisi okungadumisi kungadumisi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngidumisile, ngidumisē engidumisile, engidumisē ngidumisile, ngidumisē angidumisanga engingadumisanga ngingadumisanga
2nd singular udumisile, udumisē odumisile, odumisē udumisile, udumisē awudumisanga ongadumisanga ungadumisanga
1st plural sidumisile, sidumisē esidumisile, esidumisē sidumisile, sidumisē asidumisanga esingadumisanga singadumisanga
2nd plural nidumisile, nidumisē enidumisile, enidumisē nidumisile, nidumisē anidumisanga eningadumisanga ningadumisanga
Class 1 udumisile, udumisē odumisile, odumisē edumisile, edumisē akadumisanga ongadumisanga engadumisanga
Class 2 badumisile, badumisē abadumisile, abadumisē bedumisile, bedumisē abadumisanga abangadumisanga bengadumisanga
Class 3 udumisile, udumisē odumisile, odumisē udumisile, udumisē awudumisanga ongadumisanga ungadumisanga
Class 4 idumisile, idumisē edumisile, edumisē idumisile, idumisē ayidumisanga engadumisanga ingadumisanga
Class 5 lidumisile, lidumisē elidumisile, elidumisē lidumisile, lidumisē alidumisanga elingadumisanga lingadumisanga
Class 6 adumisile, adumisē adumisile, adumisē edumisile, edumisē awadumisanga angadumisanga engadumisanga
Class 7 sidumisile, sidumisē esidumisile, esidumisē sidumisile, sidumisē asidumisanga esingadumisanga singadumisanga
Class 8 zidumisile, zidumisē ezidumisile, ezidumisē zidumisile, zidumisē azidumisanga ezingadumisanga zingadumisanga
Class 9 idumisile, idumisē edumisile, edumisē idumisile, idumisē ayidumisanga engadumisanga ingadumisanga
Class 10 zidumisile, zidumisē ezidumisile, ezidumisē zidumisile, zidumisē azidumisanga ezingadumisanga zingadumisanga
Class 11 ludumisile, ludumisē oludumisile, oludumisē ludumisile, ludumisē aludumisanga olungadumisanga lungadumisanga
Class 14 budumisile, budumisē obudumisile, obudumisē budumisile, budumisē abudumisanga obungadumisanga bungadumisanga
Class 15 kudumisile, kudumisē okudumisile, okudumisē kudumisile, kudumisē akudumisanga okungadumisanga kungadumisanga
Class 17 kudumisile, kudumisē okudumisile, okudumisē kudumisile, kudumisē akudumisanga okungadumisanga kungadumisanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngādumisa engādumisa ngādumisa angidumisanga engingadumisanga ngingadumisanga
2nd singular wādumisa owādumisa wādumisa awudumisanga ongadumisanga ungadumisanga
1st plural sādumisa esādumisa sādumisa asidumisanga esingadumisanga singadumisanga
2nd plural nādumisa enādumisa nādumisa anidumisanga eningadumisanga ningadumisanga
Class 1 wādumisa owādumisa ādumisa akadumisanga ongadumisanga engadumisanga
Class 2 bādumisa abādumisa bādumisa abadumisanga abangadumisanga bengadumisanga
Class 3 wādumisa owādumisa wādumisa awudumisanga ongadumisanga ungadumisanga
Class 4 yādumisa eyādumisa yādumisa ayidumisanga engadumisanga ingadumisanga
Class 5 lādumisa elādumisa lādumisa alidumisanga elingadumisanga lingadumisanga
Class 6 ādumisa ādumisa ādumisa awadumisanga angadumisanga engadumisanga
Class 7 sādumisa esādumisa sādumisa asidumisanga esingadumisanga singadumisanga
Class 8 zādumisa ezādumisa zādumisa azidumisanga ezingadumisanga zingadumisanga
Class 9 yādumisa eyādumisa yādumisa ayidumisanga engadumisanga ingadumisanga
Class 10 zādumisa ezādumisa zādumisa azidumisanga ezingadumisanga zingadumisanga
Class 11 lwādumisa olwādumisa lwādumisa aludumisanga olungadumisanga lungadumisanga
Class 14 bādumisa obādumisa bādumisa abudumisanga obungadumisanga bungadumisanga
Class 15 kwādumisa okwādumisa kwādumisa akudumisanga okungadumisanga kungadumisanga
Class 17 kwādumisa okwādumisa kwādumisa akudumisanga okungadumisanga kungadumisanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingadumisa ngingadumisa ngingedumise ngingedumise
2nd singular ungadumisa ungadumisa ungedumise ungedumise
1st plural singadumisa singadumisa singedumise singedumise
2nd plural ningadumisa ningadumisa ningedumise ningedumise
Class 1 angadumisa engadumisa angedumise engedumise
Class 2 bangadumisa bengadumisa bangedumise bengedumise
Class 3 ungadumisa ungadumisa ungedumise ungedumise
Class 4 ingadumisa ingadumisa ingedumise ingedumise
Class 5 lingadumisa lingadumisa lingedumise lingedumise
Class 6 angadumisa engadumisa angedumise engedumise
Class 7 singadumisa singadumisa singedumise singedumise
Class 8 zingadumisa zingadumisa zingedumise zingedumise
Class 9 ingadumisa ingadumisa ingedumise ingedumise
Class 10 zingadumisa zingadumisa zingedumise zingedumise
Class 11 lungadumisa lungadumisa lungedumise lungedumise
Class 14 bungadumisa bungadumisa bungedumise bungedumise
Class 15 kungadumisa kungadumisa kungedumise kungedumise
Class 17 kungadumisa kungadumisa kungedumise kungedumise
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizodumisa engizodumisa ngizodumisa angizudumisa engingezudumisa ngingezudumisa
2nd singular uzodumisa ozodumisa uzodumisa awuzudumisa ongezudumisa ungezudumisa
1st plural sizodumisa esizodumisa sizodumisa asizudumisa esingezudumisa singezudumisa
2nd plural nizodumisa enizodumisa nizodumisa anizudumisa eningezudumisa ningezudumisa
Class 1 uzodumisa ozodumisa ezodumisa akazudumisa ongezudumisa engezudumisa
Class 2 bazodumisa abazodumisa bezodumisa abazudumisa abangezudumisa bengezudumisa
Class 3 uzodumisa ozodumisa uzodumisa awuzudumisa ongezudumisa ungezudumisa
Class 4 izodumisa ezodumisa izodumisa ayizudumisa engezudumisa ingezudumisa
Class 5 lizodumisa elizodumisa lizodumisa alizudumisa elingezudumisa lingezudumisa
Class 6 azodumisa azodumisa ezodumisa awazudumisa angezudumisa engezudumisa
Class 7 sizodumisa esizodumisa sizodumisa asizudumisa esingezudumisa singezudumisa
Class 8 zizodumisa ezizodumisa zizodumisa azizudumisa ezingezudumisa zingezudumisa
Class 9 izodumisa ezodumisa izodumisa ayizudumisa engezudumisa ingezudumisa
Class 10 zizodumisa ezizodumisa zizodumisa azizudumisa ezingezudumisa zingezudumisa
Class 11 luzodumisa oluzodumisa luzodumisa aluzudumisa olungezudumisa lungezudumisa
Class 14 buzodumisa obuzodumisa buzodumisa abuzudumisa obungezudumisa bungezudumisa
Class 15 kuzodumisa okuzodumisa kuzodumisa akuzudumisa okungezudumisa kungezudumisa
Class 17 kuzodumisa okuzodumisa kuzodumisa akuzudumisa okungezudumisa kungezudumisa
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyodumisa engiyodumisa ngiyodumisa angiyudumisa engingeyudumisa ngingeyudumisa
2nd singular uyodumisa oyodumisa uyodumisa awuyudumisa ongeyudumisa ungeyudumisa
1st plural siyodumisa esiyodumisa siyodumisa asiyudumisa esingeyudumisa singeyudumisa
2nd plural niyodumisa eniyodumisa niyodumisa aniyudumisa eningeyudumisa ningeyudumisa
Class 1 uyodumisa oyodumisa eyodumisa akayudumisa ongeyudumisa engeyudumisa
Class 2 bayodumisa abayodumisa beyodumisa abayudumisa abangeyudumisa bengeyudumisa
Class 3 uyodumisa oyodumisa uyodumisa awuyudumisa ongeyudumisa ungeyudumisa
Class 4 iyodumisa eyodumisa iyodumisa ayiyudumisa engeyudumisa ingeyudumisa
Class 5 liyodumisa eliyodumisa liyodumisa aliyudumisa elingeyudumisa lingeyudumisa
Class 6 ayodumisa ayodumisa eyodumisa awayudumisa angeyudumisa engeyudumisa
Class 7 siyodumisa esiyodumisa siyodumisa asiyudumisa esingeyudumisa singeyudumisa
Class 8 ziyodumisa eziyodumisa ziyodumisa aziyudumisa ezingeyudumisa zingeyudumisa
Class 9 iyodumisa eyodumisa iyodumisa ayiyudumisa engeyudumisa ingeyudumisa
Class 10 ziyodumisa eziyodumisa ziyodumisa aziyudumisa ezingeyudumisa zingeyudumisa
Class 11 luyodumisa oluyodumisa luyodumisa aluyudumisa olungeyudumisa lungeyudumisa
Class 14 buyodumisa obuyodumisa buyodumisa abuyudumisa obungeyudumisa bungeyudumisa
Class 15 kuyodumisa okuyodumisa kuyodumisa akuyudumisa okungeyudumisa kungeyudumisa
Class 17 kuyodumisa okuyodumisa kuyodumisa akuyudumisa okungeyudumisa kungeyudumisa
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngidumise ngingadumisi
2nd singular udumise ungadumisi
1st plural sidumise singadumisi
2nd plural nidumise ningadumisi
Class 1 adumise angadumisi
Class 2 badumise bangadumisi
Class 3 udumise ungadumisi
Class 4 idumise ingadumisi
Class 5 lidumise lingadumisi
Class 6 adumise angadumisi
Class 7 sidumise singadumisi
Class 8 zidumise zingadumisi
Class 9 idumise ingadumisi
Class 10 zidumise zingadumisi
Class 11 ludumise lungadumisi
Class 14 budumise bungadumisi
Class 15 kudumise kungadumisi
Class 17 kudumise kungadumisi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngadumisa ngangadumisa, angadumisa, angangadumisa
2nd singular wadumisa wangadumisa, awadumisa, awangadumisa
1st plural sadumisa sangadumisa, asadumisa, asangadumisa
2nd plural nadumisa nangadumisa, anadumisa, anangadumisa
Class 1 wadumisa wangadumisa, akadumisa, akangadumisa
Class 2 badumisa bangadumisa, abadumisa, abangadumisa
Class 3 wadumisa wangadumisa, awadumisa, awangadumisa
Class 4 yadumisa yangadumisa, ayadumisa, ayangadumisa
Class 5 ladumisa langadumisa, aladumisa, alangadumisa
Class 6 adumisa angadumisa, awadumisa, awangadumisa
Class 7 sadumisa sangadumisa, asadumisa, asangadumisa
Class 8 zadumisa zangadumisa, azadumisa, azangadumisa
Class 9 yadumisa yangadumisa, ayadumisa, ayangadumisa
Class 10 zadumisa zangadumisa, azadumisa, azangadumisa
Class 11 lwadumisa lwangadumisa, alwadumisa, alwangadumisa
Class 14 badumisa bangadumisa, abadumisa, abangadumisa
Class 15 kwadumisa kwangadumisa, akwadumisa, akwangadumisa
Class 17 kwadumisa kwangadumisa, akwadumisa, akwangadumisa

ReferencesEdit