ZuluEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

VerbEdit

-ncela

  1. (intransitive) to suck
    Synonym: -munca

InflectionEdit

Tone L
Infinitive ukuncela
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuncela ukunganceli
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular ncela -ncele
Plural ncelani -nceleni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyancela, ngincela engincelayo, engincela ngincela anginceli enginganceli nginganceli
2nd singular uyancela, uncela oncelayo, oncela uncela awunceli onganceli unganceli
1st plural siyancela, sincela esincelayo, esincela sincela asinceli esinganceli singanceli
2nd plural niyancela, nincela enincelayo, enincela nincela aninceli eninganceli ninganceli
Class 1 uyancela, uncela oncelayo, oncela encela akanceli onganceli enganceli
Class 2 bayancela, bancela abancelayo, abancela bencela abanceli abanganceli benganceli
Class 3 uyancela, uncela oncelayo, oncela uncela awunceli onganceli unganceli
Class 4 iyancela, incela encelayo, encela incela ayinceli enganceli inganceli
Class 5 liyancela, lincela elincelayo, elincela lincela alinceli elinganceli linganceli
Class 6 ayancela, ancela ancelayo, ancela encela awanceli anganceli enganceli
Class 7 siyancela, sincela esincelayo, esincela sincela asinceli esinganceli singanceli
Class 8 ziyancela, zincela ezincelayo, ezincela zincela azinceli ezinganceli zinganceli
Class 9 iyancela, incela encelayo, encela incela ayinceli enganceli inganceli
Class 10 ziyancela, zincela ezincelayo, ezincela zincela azinceli ezinganceli zinganceli
Class 11 luyancela, luncela oluncelayo, oluncela luncela alunceli olunganceli lunganceli
Class 14 buyancela, buncela obuncelayo, obuncela buncela abunceli obunganceli bunganceli
Class 15 kuyancela, kuncela okuncelayo, okuncela kuncela akunceli okunganceli kunganceli
Class 17 kuyancela, kuncela okuncelayo, okuncela kuncela akunceli okunganceli kunganceli
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngincelile, ngincelē engincelile, engincelē ngincelile, ngincelē angincelanga engingancelanga ngingancelanga
2nd singular uncelile, uncelē oncelile, oncelē uncelile, uncelē awuncelanga ongancelanga ungancelanga
1st plural sincelile, sincelē esincelile, esincelē sincelile, sincelē asincelanga esingancelanga singancelanga
2nd plural nincelile, nincelē enincelile, enincelē nincelile, nincelē anincelanga eningancelanga ningancelanga
Class 1 uncelile, uncelē oncelile, oncelē encelile, encelē akancelanga ongancelanga engancelanga
Class 2 bancelile, bancelē abancelile, abancelē bencelile, bencelē abancelanga abangancelanga bengancelanga
Class 3 uncelile, uncelē oncelile, oncelē uncelile, uncelē awuncelanga ongancelanga ungancelanga
Class 4 incelile, incelē encelile, encelē incelile, incelē ayincelanga engancelanga ingancelanga
Class 5 lincelile, lincelē elincelile, elincelē lincelile, lincelē alincelanga elingancelanga lingancelanga
Class 6 ancelile, ancelē ancelile, ancelē encelile, encelē awancelanga angancelanga engancelanga
Class 7 sincelile, sincelē esincelile, esincelē sincelile, sincelē asincelanga esingancelanga singancelanga
Class 8 zincelile, zincelē ezincelile, ezincelē zincelile, zincelē azincelanga ezingancelanga zingancelanga
Class 9 incelile, incelē encelile, encelē incelile, incelē ayincelanga engancelanga ingancelanga
Class 10 zincelile, zincelē ezincelile, ezincelē zincelile, zincelē azincelanga ezingancelanga zingancelanga
Class 11 luncelile, luncelē oluncelile, oluncelē luncelile, luncelē aluncelanga olungancelanga lungancelanga
Class 14 buncelile, buncelē obuncelile, obuncelē buncelile, buncelē abuncelanga obungancelanga bungancelanga
Class 15 kuncelile, kuncelē okuncelile, okuncelē kuncelile, kuncelē akuncelanga okungancelanga kungancelanga
Class 17 kuncelile, kuncelē okuncelile, okuncelē kuncelile, kuncelē akuncelanga okungancelanga kungancelanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāncela engāncela ngāncela angincelanga engingancelanga ngingancelanga
2nd singular wāncela owāncela wāncela awuncelanga ongancelanga ungancelanga
1st plural sāncela esāncela sāncela asincelanga esingancelanga singancelanga
2nd plural nāncela enāncela nāncela anincelanga eningancelanga ningancelanga
Class 1 wāncela owāncela āncela akancelanga ongancelanga engancelanga
Class 2 bāncela abāncela bāncela abancelanga abangancelanga bengancelanga
Class 3 wāncela owāncela wāncela awuncelanga ongancelanga ungancelanga
Class 4 yāncela eyāncela yāncela ayincelanga engancelanga ingancelanga
Class 5 lāncela elāncela lāncela alincelanga elingancelanga lingancelanga
Class 6 āncela āncela āncela awancelanga angancelanga engancelanga
Class 7 sāncela esāncela sāncela asincelanga esingancelanga singancelanga
Class 8 zāncela ezāncela zāncela azincelanga ezingancelanga zingancelanga
Class 9 yāncela eyāncela yāncela ayincelanga engancelanga ingancelanga
Class 10 zāncela ezāncela zāncela azincelanga ezingancelanga zingancelanga
Class 11 lwāncela olwāncela lwāncela aluncelanga olungancelanga lungancelanga
Class 14 bāncela obāncela bāncela abuncelanga obungancelanga bungancelanga
Class 15 kwāncela okwāncela kwāncela akuncelanga okungancelanga kungancelanga
Class 17 kwāncela okwāncela kwāncela akuncelanga okungancelanga kungancelanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingancela ngingancela ngingencele ngingencele
2nd singular ungancela ungancela ungencele ungencele
1st plural singancela singancela singencele singencele
2nd plural ningancela ningancela ningencele ningencele
Class 1 angancela engancela angencele engencele
Class 2 bangancela bengancela bangencele bengencele
Class 3 ungancela ungancela ungencele ungencele
Class 4 ingancela ingancela ingencele ingencele
Class 5 lingancela lingancela lingencele lingencele
Class 6 angancela engancela angencele engencele
Class 7 singancela singancela singencele singencele
Class 8 zingancela zingancela zingencele zingencele
Class 9 ingancela ingancela ingencele ingencele
Class 10 zingancela zingancela zingencele zingencele
Class 11 lungancela lungancela lungencele lungencele
Class 14 bungancela bungancela bungencele bungencele
Class 15 kungancela kungancela kungencele kungencele
Class 17 kungancela kungancela kungencele kungencele
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizoncela engizoncela ngizoncela angizuncela engingezuncela ngingezuncela
2nd singular uzoncela ozoncela uzoncela awuzuncela ongezuncela ungezuncela
1st plural sizoncela esizoncela sizoncela asizuncela esingezuncela singezuncela
2nd plural nizoncela enizoncela nizoncela anizuncela eningezuncela ningezuncela
Class 1 uzoncela ozoncela ezoncela akazuncela ongezuncela engezuncela
Class 2 bazoncela abazoncela bezoncela abazuncela abangezuncela bengezuncela
Class 3 uzoncela ozoncela uzoncela awuzuncela ongezuncela ungezuncela
Class 4 izoncela ezoncela izoncela ayizuncela engezuncela ingezuncela
Class 5 lizoncela elizoncela lizoncela alizuncela elingezuncela lingezuncela
Class 6 azoncela azoncela ezoncela awazuncela angezuncela engezuncela
Class 7 sizoncela esizoncela sizoncela asizuncela esingezuncela singezuncela
Class 8 zizoncela ezizoncela zizoncela azizuncela ezingezuncela zingezuncela
Class 9 izoncela ezoncela izoncela ayizuncela engezuncela ingezuncela
Class 10 zizoncela ezizoncela zizoncela azizuncela ezingezuncela zingezuncela
Class 11 luzoncela oluzoncela luzoncela aluzuncela olungezuncela lungezuncela
Class 14 buzoncela obuzoncela buzoncela abuzuncela obungezuncela bungezuncela
Class 15 kuzoncela okuzoncela kuzoncela akuzuncela okungezuncela kungezuncela
Class 17 kuzoncela okuzoncela kuzoncela akuzuncela okungezuncela kungezuncela
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyoncela engiyoncela ngiyoncela angiyuncela engingeyuncela ngingeyuncela
2nd singular uyoncela oyoncela uyoncela awuyuncela ongeyuncela ungeyuncela
1st plural siyoncela esiyoncela siyoncela asiyuncela esingeyuncela singeyuncela
2nd plural niyoncela eniyoncela niyoncela aniyuncela eningeyuncela ningeyuncela
Class 1 uyoncela oyoncela eyoncela akayuncela ongeyuncela engeyuncela
Class 2 bayoncela abayoncela beyoncela abayuncela abangeyuncela bengeyuncela
Class 3 uyoncela oyoncela uyoncela awuyuncela ongeyuncela ungeyuncela
Class 4 iyoncela eyoncela iyoncela ayiyuncela engeyuncela ingeyuncela
Class 5 liyoncela eliyoncela liyoncela aliyuncela elingeyuncela lingeyuncela
Class 6 ayoncela ayoncela eyoncela awayuncela angeyuncela engeyuncela
Class 7 siyoncela esiyoncela siyoncela asiyuncela esingeyuncela singeyuncela
Class 8 ziyoncela eziyoncela ziyoncela aziyuncela ezingeyuncela zingeyuncela
Class 9 iyoncela eyoncela iyoncela ayiyuncela engeyuncela ingeyuncela
Class 10 ziyoncela eziyoncela ziyoncela aziyuncela ezingeyuncela zingeyuncela
Class 11 luyoncela oluyoncela luyoncela aluyuncela olungeyuncela lungeyuncela
Class 14 buyoncela obuyoncela buyoncela abuyuncela obungeyuncela bungeyuncela
Class 15 kuyoncela okuyoncela kuyoncela akuyuncela okungeyuncela kungeyuncela
Class 17 kuyoncela okuyoncela kuyoncela akuyuncela okungeyuncela kungeyuncela
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngincele nginganceli
2nd singular uncele unganceli
1st plural sincele singanceli
2nd plural nincele ninganceli
Class 1 ancele anganceli
Class 2 bancele banganceli
Class 3 uncele unganceli
Class 4 incele inganceli
Class 5 lincele linganceli
Class 6 ancele anganceli
Class 7 sincele singanceli
Class 8 zincele zinganceli
Class 9 incele inganceli
Class 10 zincele zinganceli
Class 11 luncele lunganceli
Class 14 buncele bunganceli
Class 15 kuncele kunganceli
Class 17 kuncele kunganceli
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngancela ngangancela, angancela, angangancela
2nd singular wancela wangancela, awancela, awangancela
1st plural sancela sangancela, asancela, asangancela
2nd plural nancela nangancela, anancela, anangancela
Class 1 wancela wangancela, akancela, akangancela
Class 2 bancela bangancela, abancela, abangancela
Class 3 wancela wangancela, awancela, awangancela
Class 4 yancela yangancela, ayancela, ayangancela
Class 5 lancela langancela, alancela, alangancela
Class 6 ancela angancela, awancela, awangancela
Class 7 sancela sangancela, asancela, asangancela
Class 8 zancela zangancela, azancela, azangancela
Class 9 yancela yangancela, ayancela, ayangancela
Class 10 zancela zangancela, azancela, azangancela
Class 11 lwancela lwangancela, alwancela, alwangancela
Class 14 bancela bangancela, abancela, abangancela
Class 15 kwancela kwangancela, akwancela, akwangancela
Class 17 kwancela kwangancela, akwancela, akwangancela

ReferencesEdit