Last modified on 8 August 2014, at 20:47

ūdens

LatvianEdit

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 Ūdens on Latvian Wikipedia

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Ūdens
Ūdens molekula (H₂O)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *wandō, *ūden-, from the r/n-heteroclitic Proto-Indo-European noun *wódr̥, *wédōr, itself perhaps from a stem *aw(e)- (to moisten) with an extra -d (*awed, *awd, *ud, *ūd). In Latvian, only the n-form of the stem survived in ūdens, but the r-form can be seen in the related term ūdrs (otter). The lack of initial v in Latvian also suggests that a specific dialectal term was generalized: v-initial forms can still be found in geographic names (e.g. the river Vadakste, the word vads in its dialectal senses: creek, swampy forest, etc., and place names derived from it, like Mēnešvads, Alkšņa vads, etc.). Cognates include Lithuanian vanduõ, dialectal unduõ, únduo, Old Prussian unds (masculine), wundan (neuter), Proto-Slavic *voda (Old Church Slavonic, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian вода (vodá), Czech voda, Polish woda), Old Church Slavonic вѣдро (vědro, small vessel), Russian ведро (vedró, bucket), Ukrainian відро (vidró), Czech vědro, Polish wiadro, Proto-Germanic *watōr (Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐍄𐍉 (watō), Old High German wazzar, German Wasser, English water, wet), Hittite wātar (< *wódr̥), Sanskrit उदन् (udán), Ancient Greek ὕδωρ (húdōr), Latin unda (wave) (from *ud- with an infixed -n-).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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NounEdit

ūdens m (2nd declension, irregular nominative, genitive)

  1. water (transparent liquid substance formed by hydrogen and oxygen; H₂O)
    smagais ūdens — heavy water (hydrogen peroxyde, H₂O₂)
    ūdens molekulawater molecule, H₂O
    tīrs, skaidrs ūdens — clean, clear water
    dzeramais ūdens — drinking (lit. drinkable) water
    duļķains ūdens — muddy water
    mīksts, ciets ūdens — soft, hard water
    vārīts, destilēts, gāzēts ūdens — boiled, distilled, carbonated water
    jūras, upes, lietus ūdens — sea, river, rain water
    ūdens ceļš, ūdensceļš waterway
    saldūdens, sālsūdens — freshwater, saltwater
    atmosfēras, augsnes ūdens — atmospheric, soil water
    artēziskais ūdens — artesian water
    tējas, kafijas ūdens — tea, coffe water (i.e., boiled for tea, coffee)
    ūdens saturs šķīdumā — the water content of a solution
    ūdens lāse, strūkla — a drop, a spray of water
    ūdens tvaikswater vapor
    ūdens krājumi, resursiwater supplies, resources
    ūdens apgādewater supply (system)
    ūdens tek, plūst, pilwater is leaking, flowing, dripping
    smelt, dzert, attīrīt ūdeni — to draw, to drink, to purify water
    ūdenī šķīstoša viela — a substance soluble in water
    mazgāties aukstā ūdenī — to wash in cold water
    ūdens tilpe, ūdenstilpewater body, wetland
    ūdens līmeniswater level
    virs, zem ūdens — above, under water
    ūdens nelaime — sea (lit. water) accident
    ūdens riņķojums dabā — the cycle of water in nature
  2. (plural) waters (large amounts, large bodies of water)
    virszemes, sauszemes ūdeņi — surface, land water (lit. waters)
    pazemes ūdeņi — groundwater, underground water (lit. waters)
    ārstnieciskie ūdeņi — healing waters (e.g., at a spa)
    palu ūdeņi — flood water (lit. waters)
    termālie ūdeņi — thermal water) (lit. waters)
  3. (plural) water (a body, bodies of water with a specific use, or belonging to a specific region or country)
    zvejas ūdeņi — fishing waters
    teritoriālie ūdeņi — territorial waters
    iekšējie ūdeņi — internal, inland waters
    starptautiskie ūdeņi — international waters
  4. (genitive, used adjectivally) water, aquatic, aqua- (using, relating to water)
    ūdens terapija, diētawater therapy, diet
    ūdens dziednīcawater (health) resort, spa
    ūdens apkurewater heating
    ūdens turbīna water' turbine
    ūdens spainis, sūknis water' bucket, pump
    ūdens pulksteniswater clock
    ūdens šķīdumswater solution
    ūdens krānswater valve
  5. (genitive, used adjectivally) water, aquatic (relating to bodies of water)
    ūdens transportswater transport
    ūdenssportswater sports
    ūdensslēpeswater skis
    ūdens polowater polo
  6. (genitive, used adjectivally) water, aquatic (which lives, is situated, in or near bodies of water, or in water-rich areas)
    ūdens augi, ūdensaugiaquatic plants
    ūdens lilija, ūdens roze, ūdensroze — water lily
    ūdens zāle, ūdenszāle — seaweed (lit. water weed)
    ūdens dzīvnieki, ūdensdzīvniekiaquatic animals
    ūdens putni, ūdensputniaquatic birds
    ūdens gliemji, kukaiņiaquatic mollusks, insects
  7. (of cosmetic products) water (a water solution containing also alcohol, oils, herbal extracts)
    sejas ūdens — face water
    tualetes ūdens — eau-de-toilette, eau-de-cologne
  8. (colloquial, of texts, words) watery, uninteresting, boring; empty, meaningless
    ūdens gabals — piece of water (= contentless, excessively long text)
    tu slauc pareizu pienu, bet, mīļā māt, tavas meitas dzied dziesmas, kam ūdens klāt! — you milk good milk, but, dear mother, your daughters sing songs that are covered with water

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “ūdens” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7