Last modified on 9 July 2014, at 04:38

alcohol

EnglishEdit

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English or Old French alcohol (modern French alcool), from Arabic الكحل (al-kuḥl, kohl) (by broadening). The etymology is conventionally given as الكحل (al-kuḥl), dating to 1672,[1] and has been promulgated by such authorities as Webster's Third New International Dictionary, which traces it through Middle Latin and Old Spanish. It entered English (and other European languages) by an alchemical term, by etymological broadening thence broadening to any distillates, thence narrowing to ethanol specifically.

  • Bartholomew Traheron in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" (Moorish) authors for "fine powder": the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or (as I fynde it sometymes wryten) alcofoll, for moost fine poudre.
  • William Johnson in his 1657 Lexicon Chymicum glosses the word as antimonium sive stibium. By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine", the distilled essence of wine.
  • Libavius in Alchymia (1594) has vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum.
  • Johnson (1657) glosses alcohol vini as quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat.

The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" (ethanol) in the 18th century, and was again extended to the family of substances so called in modern chemistry from 1850.

According to Rachel Hajar, the classical Arabic term for alcohol is الغول (al-ḡūl) or غول (ḡūl), as used in Qur’an verse 37:47 (Arabic), there written غَوْلٌ and transmitted by mispronunciation. [2]

PronunciationEdit

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈælkəhɒl/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˈælkəhɔl/, /ˈælkəhɑl/, /ˈɑlkəhɔl/, /ˈɑlkəhɑl/
  • (file)
  • (file)

NounEdit

alcohol (countable and uncountable, plural alcohols)

An assortment of alcoholic beverages
  1. (organic chemistry, countable) Any of a class of organic compounds (such as ethanol) containing a hydroxyl functional group (-OH).
  2. (uncountable) An intoxicating beverage made by the fermentation of sugar or sugar-containing material.
    • 2013 June 22, “Snakes and ladders”, The Economist, volume 407, number 8841, page 76: 
      Risk is everywhere. From tabloid headlines insisting that coffee causes cancer (yesterday, of course, it cured it) to stern government warnings about alcohol and driving, the world is teeming with goblins.
  3. (obsolete) Any very fine powder.

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ OED
  2. ^ Etymology of Alcohol

AsturianEdit

NounEdit

alcohol m (plural alcoholes)

  1. alcohol

CatalanEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (standard) IPA(key): /əɫkuˈoɫ/

NounEdit

alcohol m (plural alcohols)

  1. (organic chemistry, countable) alcohol
  2. (uncountable) alcohol

Related termsEdit


DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: al‧co‧hol

NounEdit

alcohol m (plural alcoholen)

  1. (countable, organic chemistry) alcohol (class of compounds)
  2. (uncountable) alcohol (ethanol specifically)

Related termsEdit

SynonymsEdit


FrenchEdit

NounEdit

alcohol m (plural alcohols)

  1. (rare) Alternative spelling of alcool.

External linksEdit


LatinEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

alcohol n (genitive alcoholis); third declension

  1. alcohol

InflectionEdit

Third declension neuter.

Number Singular Plural
nominative alcohol alcohola
genitive alcoholis alcoholum
dative alcoholī alcoholibus
accusative alcohol alcohola
ablative alcohole alcoholibus
vocative alcohol alcohola

Related termsEdit


Old FrenchEdit

NounEdit

alcohol m (oblique plural alcohos, nominative singular alcohos, nominative plural alcohol)

  1. alcohol


This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. This language is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

SpanishEdit

Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia es

EtymologyEdit

Via Andalusian Arabic from Arabic الكحل (al-kuħl, kohl)

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /al.koˈol/, /alˈkol/

NounEdit

alcohol m (plural alcoholes)

  1. alcohol
  2. (mineralogy) galena
  3. (cosmetics) kohl, stibnite