galotne

See also: galotnē

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From gals (end) +‎ -otne. This word was first used in the grammatical sense of “ending” by A. Stērste in 1879 and was soon accepted into the standard language.[1]

PronunciationEdit

(file)

NounEdit

galotne f (5th declension)

  1. (of trees, plants) top of the foliage, highest branches; thin, growing end of a trunk, branch, stem or root; highest part
    ozola, bērza, egles galotne — oak, birch, fir top
    krūma, zara galotne — bush, branch end, tip
    vēja šūpojas bērzu galotnes — the wind is swaying the tips, tops of the birch trees
    nocirst kokam galotni — to cut off the tip of the tree (= of the top branches)
    nokniebt saknes galotni — to nip off the tips of the roots
    stumbrs un katrs zars aug ar galotni — the trunk and every branch grow from (lit. with) the tip
  2. (of hills, mountains, waves, etc.) top, summit, apex, highest part
    klinšu galotnestops of the rocks
    kalna galotnetop of the hill
    baltas viļņu galotnes — the white tops of the waves
  3. (of lungs, hearts) apex, farthest extremity
    plaušu, sirds galotne — the apex of the lungs, of the heart
    sirds augšdaļu, no kuras atiet asinsvadi, sauc par pamatu, bet apakšdaļu - par galotni — the upper part of the heart, from which the blood vessels leave, is called base, and the lower part (is called) apex
  4. (of chess, checkers) final stage, end part (of a match)
    viņš labi pārzina šaha spēles stratēģiju un ir visai izveicīgs galotnē — he is well acquainted with the strategy of the game of chess and is very skillful at the final stage (of a match)
  5. (linguistics, grammar) ending (the part at the end of a word that changes when it is conjugated, declined, etc.; the final, inflectional suffix of an inflected word)
    lietvārda galotnes — noun endings
    noteiktā galotne — definite ending (i.e., definite form)
    nenoteiktā galotne — indefinite ending (i.e., indefinite form)
    norīt galotnes — to swallow the endings (i.e., to pronounce the word endings badly, unclearly, or not at all)

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

  • (of "top", "summit"): virsotne
  • (of "ending"): piedēklis, sufikss

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “gals” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.
Last modified on 19 March 2014, at 06:35