A vowel assimilation assimilation (e > a) variant of an old en-stem word — with an extra final -e — kamene “spruce or oak bark,” figuratively also “sleigh” (in the plural kamenes, apparently because in ancient times heavy loads were transported over peeled-off tree bark as if over runners), from Proto-Baltic *kam-, from the ablauted form *kom- of Proto-Indo-European *kem “to squeeze, to compress,” therefore also “bent, round” (whence Latvian dialectal čems, kams). Cognates include Lithuanian kamíenas, kamė́nas (“tree trunk”), kãmanos (“bridle”), Czech kmen (“stem, trunk”), Polish kien (“stump, bar, log”), Gothic 𐌷𐌹𐌼𐌹𐌽𐍃 (himins, “sky, firmament”), Old Norse himenn, German Himmel, Dutch hemel, Tajik dialectal kamali (“sleigh runners”).
kamanas f, 4th declension
- (only plural) sleigh (vehicle on runners pulled by animals over snow or ice)
- jūgt kamanās — to harness (a horse) to (lit. in) a sleigh
- braukt ar kamanām — to go by, on (a) sleigh
- braukt kamanās — to ride a sleigh
- briežu kamanas — (rein)deer sleigh
- suņu kamanas — dog sled
- kamanu sega — sleigh blanket
- zem kamanu sliecēm gurkstēja sniegs — the snow crunched under the sleigh runners
- vedējs un milicis Kaņeps izlēca no kamanām — the driver and police agent Kaņeps jumped out of the sleigh
The original singular form kamana is attested only in folk songs.
- ragavas, ragaviņas