Last modified on 8 June 2014, at 02:58




From Middle High German twingen, from Old High German dwingan, from Proto-Germanic *þwinganą.[1] Cognates include Dutch dwingen, Norwegian tvinge, Swedish tvinga, Icelandic þvinga. What may be perceived as a repetition of the consonant shift (from Germanic → Old High German d → Middle High German t → modern German z) is a regular development that affected all words with Old High German dw- and tw- (compare Zwerg).


  • IPA(key): /ˈtsvɪŋən/, [ˈtsʋɪŋən], [ˈtsʋɪŋŋ̩]
  • Hyphenation: zwin‧gen
  • Rhymes: -ɪŋn̩
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zwingen (class 3 strong, third-person singular simple present zwingt, past tense zwang, past participle gezwungen, past subjunctive zwänge, auxiliary haben)

  1. (transitive or reflexive) to force; to compel; to make (someone do something)
  2. (intransitive, with "zu ...") to necessitate; to call for


Related termsEdit


  1. ^ “zwingen” in: Friedrich Kluge, “Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache” , 22. Auflage, 1989, bearbeitet von Elmar Seebold, ISBN 3-11-006800-1

External linksEdit