zwingen

GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle High German twingen, from Old High German dwingan, from Proto-Germanic *þwinganą.[1] Cognates include Dutch dwingen, Norwegian tvinge, Swedish tvinga, Icelandic þvinga. The "triple consonant shift" (from Germanic → Old High German d → Middle High German t → German z) is very unusual, but each stage is clearly attested.

PronunciationEdit

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VerbEdit

zwingen (class 3 strong, third-person singular simple present zwingt, past tense zwang, past participle gezwungen, past subjunctive zwänge, auxiliary haben)

  1. (transitive or reflexive) to force; to compel; to make (someone do something)
  2. (intransitive, with "zu ...") to necessitate; to call for

ConjugationEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ “zwingen” in: Friedrich Kluge, “Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache” , 22. Auflage, 1989, bearbeitet von Elmar Seebold, ISBN 3-11-006800-1
Last modified on 16 February 2014, at 08:11