Last modified on 11 December 2014, at 12:14

du

Alemannic GermanEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. thou, you

DeclensionEdit


AmanabEdit

NounEdit

du

  1. a kind of bird

BretonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Celtic *dubus (black), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ- (black).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

du

  1. black
  2. swollen
  3. starved

NounEdit

du m

  1. black

MutationEdit


CornishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Celtic *dubus (black), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ- (black).

PronunciationEdit

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [dyː]
  • (Revived Late Cornsh) IPA(key): [diˑʊ]

AdjectiveEdit

du

  1. black

DanishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ (you).

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du (objective dig)

  1. (personal) thou, you (2nd person singular subject pronoun, informal)
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Norse duga.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /duː/, [d̥uːˀ]

VerbEdit

du (imperative du, present dur or duer, past duede, past participle duet)

  1. be good
  2. be fit

Dena'inaEdit

ParticleEdit

du

  1. interrogative particle (placed at the end of the sentence to make a question)

DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Dutch du, from Old Dutch thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronounEdit

du

  1. (obsolete or dialectal) Second-person singular, subjective; thou.

ElfdalianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Cognate with Swedish du.

PronounEdit

du

  1. you (singular), thou

EsperantoEdit

Esperanto cardinal numbers
1 2 3
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : dua
    Adverbial : due
    Multiplier : duobla

EtymologyEdit

From Latin duo, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

PronunciationEdit

Cardinal numeralEdit

du

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

Derived termsEdit


FrenchEdit

PronunciationEdit

ContractionEdit

du

  1. contraction of de + le (of the).
  2. contraction of de + le, forms the partitive article.
    The partitive article signifies "some", but it often is not translated in English, Dutch, or German.

GermanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • Du (pre-reform orthography, now becoming rare)

EtymologyEdit

From Old High German du (akin to Old Saxon thu and English thou), itself from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronunciationEdit

  • (standard, generally) IPA(key): /duː/
  • (standard, after the verb ending -st) IPA(key): /uː/ (not using this contraction sounds pedantic)
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /də/

PronounEdit

du

  1. thou, you (singular familiar)

Usage notesEdit

  • As a simplified rule one can say that du is used among friends, relatives, and young people up to 25~30 years. Du is always used to address children up to 14~16 years, as well as gods, animals, and other creatures.
  • Usage also depends a lot on the setting in which people meet: two unacquainted, middle-aged persons are quite likely to use du when they meet, for example, in a pub, but much less so when they meet in the street.
  • Native English-speakers often use Sie too much. It is nevertheless advisable to use Sie in any case of doubt, because it may be rude to use du when the dialogue partner expects Sie.

InflectionEdit

In contemporary German, the genitive forms of personal pronouns are restricted to formal style and are unfrequent even there. They may be used

  • for the genitive object still found in a handful of verbs: Er erbarmte sich deiner. – "He had mercy on you". (Colloquially one would either use the dative case, or a prepositional object, or replace the verb with another.)
  • after the preposition statt ("instead of, in place of"): Ich kam statt deiner in die Mannschaft. – "I joined the team in your place." (This sounds antiquated, for which reason an deiner Statt or an deiner Stelle is preferable. Nota bene: deiner here is not a genitive, but a possessive pronoun!)

Derived termsEdit

External linksEdit

  • du in Duden online

GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

du

  1. Romanization of 𐌳𐌿

IdoEdit

Cardinal numeralEdit

du

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

KurdishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Iranian *duu̯a (compare Persian دو (do), Pashto دوه (dwa), Avestan 𐬛𐬬𐬀 (dva)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian (compare Sanskrit द्व (dvá), Marathi दोन (don), Hindi दो (do)/Urdu دو (do), Punjabi ਦੋ ()), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ (compare Russian два (dva), Lithuanian du, Greek δύο (dýo), Spanish dos, English two).

Cardinal numeralEdit

du

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

LigurianEdit

PronunciationEdit

ContractionEdit

du

  1. contraction of de + u (of the).
  2. contraction of de + u, forms the partitive article.
    The partitive article signifies "some", but it often is not translated in English, Dutch, or German.

LithuanianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *duwō, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁. Compare Latvian divi. Cognate to Latin duo.

Cardinal numeralEdit

du m (feminine dvi)

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

DeclensionEdit


LojbanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Derived from dunli.

PronunciationEdit

CmavoEdit

du (rafsi dub or du'o)

  1. (identity selbri) x1 equals x2, x3, x4, ...
    li pa su'i vo du li mu
    one plus four equals five

See alsoEdit


Lower SorbianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *jьdǫ (first-person singular) and *jьdǫtь (third-person plural), inflected forms of *jьti.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

du

  1. first-person singular present of hyś
  2. third-person plural present of hyś

SynonymsEdit

  • (first-person singular): źom

LuxembourgishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *þū.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. second-person singular, nominative: thou
    Wéi al bass du? — How old art thou?

DeclensionEdit


MandarinEdit

RomanizationEdit

du

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notesEdit

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Dutch thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. thou, you (singular, informal)

DeclensionEdit

Usage notesEdit

This pronoun began to be replaced by gi in formal address during the Middle Dutch period, and eventually fell out of use altogether.

SynonymsEdit


NormanEdit

NounEdit

du m

  1. duke

Related termsEdit


Norwegian BokmålEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronounEdit

du (objective case deg)

  1. thou, you (second person, singular)

ReferencesEdit

See alsoEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du (objective case deg)

  1. thou, you (second person, singular)

ReferencesEdit

See alsoEdit


NovialEdit

Novial cardinal numbers
1 2 3
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : duesmi

NumeralEdit

du

  1. (cardinal) two



Old FrenchEdit

Alternative formsEdit

ContractionEdit

du

  1. contraction of de + le (of the)

Old High GermanEdit

one drawing of the inscription on the Bülach fibula

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *þū, whence also Old English þu, Old Norse þú, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Perhaps the earliest attestation of the pronoun is the inscription on the Bülach fibula, which may show ᛞᚢ (du) already differentiated from other Germanic languages’ þu.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. thou, you (second-person singular pronoun)
    • 3rd-6th century, inscription on the Bülach fibula:
      ᚠᚱᛁᚠᚱᛁᛞᛁᛚ / ᛞᚢ / ...
      frifridil / du / []
      Frifridil, you / []

DescendantsEdit

  • German: du

See alsoEdit

  • fridil (a pet name for a male lover)

ReferencesEdit

  • Heinz Klingenberg, Runenfibel von Bülach, Kanton Zürich. Liebesinschrift aus alemannischer Frühzeit, in the Alemannisches Jahrbuch (1973/75), page 308
  • Heinz Klingenberg, Die Runeninschrift aus Bülach, in Helvetia archaeologica, volume 7 (1976), pages 116–121
  • Stephan Opitz, Südgermanische Runeninschriften im älteren Futhark aus der Merowingerzeit (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1977)

RomanianEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

du

  1. second-person singular imperative form of duce.
    Du-te acasă.
    Go home.

SwedishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Swedish þu, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. (personal) you (familiar sg.).
  2. (personal) thou.

Usage notesEdit

While du is the traditionally familiar mode of address, it is since the early '70s the standard in almost all circumstances, possibly capitalized in formal communications. Recently, use of the second-person plural pronoun ni as a less familiar (and thus more formal) pronoun has appeared to some extent, but mainly amongst shopkeepers towards the customers.

The same pronoun ni has also been used historically as a formal way of address, but its use has (in particular in Sweden, not so much in Swedish-speaking parts of Finland) been restricted to addressing people of lower social status, whereby a plethora of different constructions were employed as to avoid the issue of pronouns whatsoever. See also the article about T-V distinction in Wikipedia.

DeclensionEdit


VenetianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Compare Italian due

NumeralEdit

du m

  1. two

SynonymsEdit


VietnameseEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

du

  1. walk

Derived termsEdit


WelshEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Celtic *dubus (black) (compare Old Irish dub, Irish/Scottish Gaelic dubh), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ- (black).

PronunciationEdit

  • (North Wales) IPA(key): [dɨː]
  • (South Wales) IPA(key): [diː]

AdjectiveEdit

du (feminine du, plural duon, equative dued, comparative duach, superlative duaf)

  1. black
    Mae ganddo fo fwstash du.
    He has a black mustache.

MutationEdit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
du ddu nu unchanged