بحران

ArabicEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Probably from Aramaic בחרנא(bəḥrānā, test, turning point of disease progression, crisis), from בְּחַר(bəḥar, judging, testing); compare Hebrew בָּחַר(bāḥar, to choose, appoint). Perhaps eventually a calque of Ancient Greek κρίσις (krísis). The Arabic lexicographers identified the word as foreign and considered it of Greek origin.

Lane instead theorised it to be from archaic البَاحُور(al-bāḥūr, the moon, literally expanding, widening; being at the full extent, the furthest extremities), from the notion of a sudden change of health being linked to the phase of the moon. Compare for this Ancient Greek σεληνιάζομαι (selēniázomai, epilepsy; sudden drastic symptoms, literally moonstruck), Latin lunaticus, and English lunacy.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

بُحْرَان (buḥrānm (plural بَحَارِين(baḥārīn))

  1. (now rare) crisis, panic
    Synonym: أَزْمَة(ʾazma)
  2. (medicine) crisis
DeclensionEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

NounEdit

بحران (baḥrān)

  1. dual of بَحْر(baḥr)

ReferencesEdit

  • Freytag, Georg (1830) , “بحران”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 1, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 88
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860) , “بحران”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc (in French), volume 1, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, page 89
  • Lane, Edward William (1863) , “بحران”, in Arabic-English Lexicon, London: Williams & Norgate, page 157
  • Wehr, Hans; Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985) , “بحران”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 67

PersianEdit

 
Persian Wikipedia has an article on:
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EtymologyEdit

From Arabic بُحْران(buḥrān, crisis)

PronunciationEdit

  • (Kabuli): IPA(key): /boːɾɒːn/

NounEdit

Dari Persian بحران
Iranian Persian
Tajik бӯҳрон (bühron)

بحران (bohrân)

  1. crisis
    بحران اقتصادی‎ ― bohrân-e eqtesâdifinancial crisis
    بحران بدهی‎ ― bohrân-e bedehidebt crisis
    بحران بین‌المللی‎ ― bohrân-e beyn-olmelaliinternational crisis
    بحران سیاسی‎ ― bohrân-e siyâsipolitical crisis