Wiktionary:Persian transliteration

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These are the rules concerning transliteration in Persian entries.

This page focuses on Iranian Persian, for transliteration rules concerning Classical Persian or Dari Persian see Persian transliteration/Dari. For transliteration rules concerning Tajik, see Wiktionary:Tajik transliteration.

Persian transliteration edit

Systems for Romanizing Persian
Persian Wiktionary IPA Others (dispreferred)
ا⁩ (word-initial) a, o, e (ʔ)æ, (ʔ)o, (ʔ)e
ا⁩ (other positions) â ɒː ā
آ â (word-initial)
'â (other positions)
(ʔ)ɒː (word-initial)
ʔɒː (other positions)
ʼā
ب b b
پ p p
ت t t
ث s s th, s̱, ṯ, s̄
ج j ǧ
چ č ch, c
ح h h ḥ, ḩ
خ x x kh, k͟h, ḫ, ḵ
د d d
ذ z z dh, d͟h, ẕ, ḏ
ر r r
ز z z
ژ ž ʒ zh, z͟h
س s s
ش š ʃ sh, s͟h
ص s s
ض z z ḍ, ż, ẕ
ط t t ṭ, ţ
ظ z z ẓ, z̧
ع ' ʔ, ː ʻ
غ ğ ɣ, ɢ q, gh, g͟h, ġ
ف f f
ق ğ ɣ, ɢ q, gh, g͟h, ḳ
ک k k
گ g g
ل l l
م m m
ن n n
و⁩ (consonant) v v w
و⁩ (long vowel) u, ô uː, oː ū, ō
و⁩ (diphthong[1]) ow ow au, aw
خوا⁩ (e.g. ⁧خواندن⁩ etc.) xɒː xwā-, khwā-
خوی⁩ (e.g. ⁧خوید⁩ etc.) xi xiː
ه⁩ (consonant) h (may appear in final position after a vowel, e.g. ⁧ده(dah)) h
ـه⁩ (word-final vowel) e e, æ eh, a, ah
ی⁩ (consonant) y j j
ی⁩ (long vowel) i, ê iː, eː ī, ē
ی⁩ (diphthong[2]) ey ej ai, ay
یٰ⁩ (always word-final) â ɒː ā, á
  1. ^ Unless bearing a shadda, in which case it is treated as consonant, e.g. ⁧اوّل(avval), not *owval
  2. ^ Unless bearing a shadda, in which case it is treated as consonant, e.g. ⁧ایّوب(ayyub), not *eyyub

Other symbols or combinations edit

  1. ـاً(-an), ⁧ءً('an) (always word-final) – an (The position of [fatHatan] is after the alef, not before, as is the current practice with Arabic)
  2. ء⁩ – ' (others: ʼ)
  3. ؤ⁩ – ' (others: ʼ)
  4. ئ⁩ – ' (others: ʼ)
  5. ـِ(-e) (ezâfe) (always word-final, unmarked in regular writing) – -e
  6. یِ(-ye) (ezâfe) (after long vowels ⁧ا(â) or ⁧و(u), unmarked in regular writing) - -ye
    آفْریقایِ جُنوبی⁩ ― âfriğâ-ye jonubiSouth Africa
  7. یِ(-ye) (ezâfe) (always word-final with ⁧ی(i), unmarked in regular writing) - i-ye
    جُمْهوریِ تاجیکِسْتان⁩ ― jomhuri-ye tâjikestânRepublic of Tajikistan
  8. ـهٔ(-h-ye) (U+0647 U+0654), sometimes written as ⁧ـه‌ی(-h-i) (always word-final) – e-ye. (Articles don't contain the hamze above "he", it is considered a diacritic and only used in the dsplay using |head=. Templates link to words without the hamze.)
    خانِهٔ بُزُرْگ(spelled with a hamze diacritic)xâne-ye bozorga big house
    خانِه‌ی بُزُرْگ(spelled with a a non-connecting ye)xâne-ye bozorga big house
  9. ـه‌ای(-h-i) - e-yi
  10. نه(no, not) - na (an exception)
  11. ـّ⁩ (tashdid) – geminate consonant (Arabic shadda)
  12. ـَ(-a) (fathe/zor) – a (Arabic fatha)
  13. ـِ(-e) (kasre/zir) – e (in modern Iranian, to check cases where it's "i") (Arabic kasra)
  14. ـُ(-o) (zamme/pish) – o (in modern Iranian, to check cases where it's "u") (Arabic damma). Used after consonants to make a short "o" sound. If used before ⁧و(o) produces a diphthong "ow":
    نُوْروز(nowruz)
  15. ـّ⁩ (shadda) – geminate consonant
  16. ـ۟⁩ (sukūn/sokun) - marks absence of a vowel. Rarely used in popular Persian vocalisations, especially on final consonants. It may be necessary to use consistently in strict vocalisations to avoid any misreadings, allow automation and signalling that a word IS vocalised.
  17. ـه(-h) (in the word-final position after consonants for a large number of words) - e (no hyphen) (note with ezâfe the preferred spelling is ⁧ـهٔ(-h-ye))
    هَفْتِه⁩ ― hafteweek
  18. ـه(-h) - when used as a colloquial copula in the 3rd person singular (he/she/it is) - -e (with a hyphen)
    تِهْرون پایْتَخْتِ ایرونِه.(colloquial)tehrun pâytaxt-e irun-e.Tehran is the capital of Iran.
  19. ZWNJ – - (hyphen)
  20. The use of hyphens for etymological reasons - suffixes, compound words, etc. when no ZWNJ is used is to be discussed. E.g. currently plural form suffix ⁧ها() is transliterated as "-hâ" regardless if ZWNJ is present or not. (Apart from cases described above and ZWNJ, the use of hyphen is otherwise dispreferred. A space is transliterated as a space and the absence of space or ZWNJ is transliterated as nothing.)
    Below are transliteration examples to contrast the use of ZWNJ on connecting letters, space, nothing and non-connecting letters:
    ZWNJ on joining letters ⁧کتاب‌ها(ketâb-hâ) (plural of ⁧کتاب(ketâb))
    Space ⁧کتاب ها(ketâb hâ)
    Nothing (joining letters are connected) ⁧کتابها(ketâbhâ)
    Non-joining letters (no ZWNJ is used) ⁧اتوها(otuhâ) (plural of ⁧اتو(otu))

Arabic loanwords edit

  1. ـة(-h) (always word-final) – a(t) (rare, only in unadapted borrowings from Arabic, normally adapted into Persian as ⁧ـت(at) or ⁧ـه(e))
  2. الـ⁩ - al (normally), can be "al-" (with a hyphen), if identified as the Arabic definite article. "l" can change to the following consonant if it's a "sun letter","a" can change to "o" (Arabic "u") in ezâfe, e.g.
    فارِغ‌ُالتَّحْصیل(fâreğ-ot-tahsil) - here "l" is assimilated to "t" and "a" is changed to "o" following Arabic grammar rules (technically, Arabic "u" belongs to the previous word: "fāriḡu t-taḥṣīli").
  3. الـ⁩ - l or the next consonant (assimilated for Arabic "sun letters"). The alef is silent.
    بِٱلْفِعْل(belfe'l) from Arabic ⁧بِٱلْفِعْلِ(bi-l-fiʕli) where the alif is silent (⁧أَلِف الوَصْل(ʔalif al-waṣl))