Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From the root ل غ و (l-ḡ-w). Related to Hebrew לוע / לֹעַ (lṓaʿ, throat, pharynx, maw).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /lu.ɣa/
  • (file)

Noun edit

لُغَة (luḡaf (plural لُغَات (luḡāt))

  1. language
    Synonym: لِسَان (lisān)
    هَلْ تَسْتَطِيعُ الحَديثَ بِغَيْرِ لُغَتِكَ الْأُمّ؟
    Can you speak another language besides your mother tongue?
  2. dialect, vernacular
    Synonym: لَهْجَة (lahja)
  3. jargon
  4. (linguistics) a variant
    • 1290, Ibn Manẓūr, “وي”, in لسان العرب [The Tongue of the Arabs]‎[1], فصل الحاء المهملة [The section of the undotted letter ح (ḥāʔ)], page 211:
      حَيِيَ حَياةً وَحَيَّ يَحْيَا وَيَحَيُّ فَهُوَ حَيٌّ، وَلِلْجَمِيعِ حَيُّوا، بِٱلتَّشْدِيدِ، قَالَ: وَلُغَةٌ أُخْرَى حَيَّ يَحَيُّ وَلِلْجَمِيعِ حَيُوا، خَفِيفَة.
      ḥayiya ḥayātan wa-ḥayya yaḥyā wa-yaḥayyu fa-huwa ḥayyun, wa-li-l-jamīʕi ḥayyū, bi-t-tašdīdi, qāla: wa-luḡatun ʔuḵrā ḥayya yaḥayyu wa-li-l-jamīʕi ḥayū, ḵafīfa.
      He lived a life, and he lived, he lives and he lives so he is alive, and in the plural they lived, with gemination; [it was] said: another variant is he lived, he lives, and in the plural they lived, [without gemination].
    • (Can we date this quote?), الفَرَّاء، أَبُو زَكَرِيَّا يَحْيَا بِن زِيَاد [al-farrāʔ, ʔabū zakariyyā yaḥyā bin ziyād, Al-Farrāʾ], edited by جَابِر بِن عَبْدِ اللهِ السُّرَيِّع [jābir bin ʕabdi llāhi s-surayyiʕ], كِتَابٌ فِيهِ لُغَاتُ القُرْآن (kitābun fīhi luḡātu al-qurʔān) [A book containing variant readings of the Qur'an], published 2014:
      وَفِي (نَسْتَعِينُ) لُغَتَانِ: قُرَيْشٌ وَكِنَانَةُ يَنْصِبُونَ النُّونَ، وَعَامَّةُ العَرَبِ مِن بَنِي قَيْسِ وَرَبِيعَةَ يَقُولُونَ: نِسْتَعِينُ...
      wa-fī (nastaʕīnu) luḡatāni: qurayšun wa-kinānatu yanṣibūna n-nūna, wa-ʕāmmatu l-ʕarabi min banī qaysi wa-rabīʕata yaqūlūna: nistaʕīnu...
      And there are two variants of نَسْتَعِينُ (nastaʕīnu): Quraysh and Kinanah pronounce it with na-, [whereas] the general Arab public of the tribes Tamim, Qays, and Rabīʿa say: nistaʿīnu...
  5. (with the definite article) Classical Arabic
  6. lexicography, lexicographic literature, lexicographers
    • a. 1050, مروان بن جناح [Marwān ibn Janāḥ], edited by Gerrit Bos, Fabian Käs, كتاب التلخيص [kitāb at-talḵīṣ] [On the Nomenclature of Medicinal Drugs], Leiden: Brill, published 2020, →DOI, →ISBN, 825 (fol. 70r,14–v,1), page 963:
      القبج بالفارسية هو الحجل عنه ومن كتاب أهرن وفي اللغة: القبج ذكر الحجل، قال الصنوبري
      يٰأخِي قُمْ فَقَدْ شَجَجْنا لَكَ الرَّاحَ … فَخُذْها مَشْجُوجَةً أيّ شَجّ
      قَطَعَ المَاءُ جِسْمَها قِطَعًا لَمْ … تَغْذِ أَمْثالَها مَناقِيرُ قَبْج
      Al-qabj is Persian for partridge ibidem [in ar-Rāzī’s Ḥāwī]. From ʾAhrun’s book and the lexicographers: It is the male partridge. Aṣ-Ṣanawbarīy said:
      O brother, get up! We have mixed wine for you.
      Take it in a mixed state in whichever fashion!
      The water has stripped down its substance into bits,
      of size smaller than chukar beaks eat.

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Gulf Arabic: لغة (luḡa)
  • Azerbaijani: lüğət
  • Malay: loghat (dialect)
  • Ottoman Turkish: لغت (lüğat)
  • Persian: لغت (loğat)
  • Sindhi: لغت
  • Somali: luuqada
  • Swahili: lugha
  • Tajik: луғат (luġat)
  • Urdu: لغت (luġat, dictionary)
  • Uyghur: لۇغەت (lughet)
  • Uzbek: lug'at

References edit

  • Wehr, Hans (1979) “لغو”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN

South Levantine Arabic edit

Root
ل غ و
2 terms

Etymology edit

From Arabic لُغَة (luḡa).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /lu.ɣa/, [ˈlʊ.ɣa]
  • (file)

Noun edit

لغة (luḡaf (plural لغات (luḡāt))

  1. language
    لغة أجنبيةluḡa ʔajnabiyyeforeign language
    اللغة الأمil-luḡa il-ʔummnative language, mother tongue
    (file)

See also edit