습니다

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Early Modern Korean 습ᄂᆡ다 (-seumnaeda), contraction of earlier 습ᄂᆞ이다 (-seumnaida), an honorific declarative verbal suffix representing a merger of the Middle Korean verbal suffixes ᄉᆞᆸ (-sop, object honorific) + ᄂᆞ (-no, present tense marker) + ᅌᅵ (-ngi, addressee honorific for statements) + (-ta, declarative mood marker).

The allomorph ㅂ니다 (-mnida) after sonorants represents the fact that the Middle Korean object honorific ᄉᆞᆸ (-sop) had the allomorph ᅀᆞᆸ (-zop) after sonorants, which became simply (-p) after Middle Korean /z/ was (almost) unconditionally deleted in the sixteenth century.

PronunciationEdit

Revised Romanization? seumnida
Revised Romanization (translit.)? seubnida
McCune–Reischauer? ssŭmnida
Yale Romanization? qsupnita

SuffixEdit

—습니다 (-seumnida)

  1. Declarative suffix for sentence-final verbs in the 하십시오체 (hasipsioche, “formal polite”) speech level.
    고맙습니다.
    Gomapseumnida.
    Thank you.

Usage notesEdit

ᆸ니다 (mnida) is used after verbs and adjectives with no finals or (l), which falls out. For example,

가— (ga-, “to go”) + ᆸ니다 (mnida) = 갑니다 (gamnida)
알— (al-, “to know”) + ᆸ니다 (mnida) = 압니다 (amnida)

습니다 (seumnida) is used otherwise; that is, after verbs and adjectives with finals that are not (l). For example,

먹— (meok-, “to eat”) + 습니다 (seumnida) = 먹습니다 (meokseumnida)

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Chinese:
  • Japanese: ニダ (nida)

ReferencesEdit

  • 정언학 (Jeong Eon-hak) (2006) , “통합형 어미 '-습니다'류의 통시적 형성과 형태 분석”, in Gugeo gyoyuk, volume 121, pages 317—356