U+3139, ㄹ

Hangul Compatibility Jamo
U+1105, ᄅ

Hangul Jamo
U+11AF, ᆯ

Hangul Jamo
U+3203, ㈃

Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
U+3263, ㉣

Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
U+FFA9, ᄅ

Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms


Stroke order
Korean Wikipedia has an article on:
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Etymology 1Edit

English Wikipedia has an article on:

The Hunmin Jeongeum Haerye, the treatise introducing the principles behind the Korean alphabet written by its inventor King Sejong in 1446, explains that this glyph was derived from the "outline of the tongue" when pronouncing this "semi-lingual sound" (), but does not elaborate.

Gari Ledyard suggests that Sejong may have had his inspiration for from the 'Phags-pa letter (l), although he is more tentative here than with the Hangul letters for the plosives. Ledyard gives evidence that Sejong was inspired by 'Phags-pa for the basic glyph forms, although he changed the shapes of the letters drastically in order to enhance the simplicity and rationality of his script, and the ultimate shape of the letters may indeed have been influenced by that of the speech organs (Ledyard 1997).


  • IPA(key): /l/
  • Actual realisation:
    (word-initially or between vowels) IPA(key): [ɾ]
    (after nasals other than /n/, or after stops) IPA(key): [n]
    (elsewhere) IPA(key): [ɭ]



  1. 리을 (rieul, “rieul”), the fourth jamo or letter of Hangul, the Korean alphabet: the alveolar flap or approximant ([ɾ], [l])
See alsoEdit
  • Alveolar consonants: (n, “n”), (d, “d”), (tt, “tt”), (t, “t”), (s, “s”), (ss, “ss”)
  • Nasal stops: (m, “m”), (/, “ng”)

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Korean (-lq), from Old Korean (*-l). The Old Korean form (up to the thirteenth century) was primarily an irrealis verbal nominalizer, rather than an adnominal suffix as it is now. In fifteenth-century Middle Korean both the nominalizing and adnominal functions were in use, but the nominalizing function was already quite archaic. Since the sixteenth century, the suffix has only had an adnominal meaning.



—ㄹ (-l)

  1. a verbal irrealis adnominal suffix, generally equivalent to English "that will" or "who will" but not always having a future tense meaning
    친구에게 선물
    chin'guege jul seonmul
    the gift that (I) will give to (my) friend
    biga ol ttae
    when it rains (literally: times when it rains)
Usage notesEdit

After consonants, the allomorph - (eul, “-eul”) is used.

- (l, “-l”) is appended to the sequential form. Similar to a future participle, the resulting determiner indicates that the referent of the following substantive will perform the action described by the verb to which - (l, “-l”) is attached:

  • 가다 (gada, “to go”): (gani, “ga-”) + (l, “l”): (gal, “who will go; that sb will go to/at/by...”)
  • 묻다 (mutda, “to inquire”): 물으 (mureuni, “mureu-”) + (l, “l”): 물을 (mureul, “who will inquire; that sb will inquire”)
  • 날다 (nalda, “to fly”): 니/ (nani/nalmyeon, “na-/nal-”) + (l, “l”): (nal, “that will fly”)

The suffix -ㄹ (-l) is frequently used along with several dependent nouns, such as (geot, “thing”) and (ttae, “time”), for grammatical purposes. As an irrealis mood marker rather than a tense marker, it can either denote the future tense, or nothing:

  • (future, intention) 친구이번 기회고향 라고 했다. (Geu chin'guneun ibeon gihoee gohyangjibeul chajeul geosirago haetda., “He said he will visit his hometown by this chance.”)
  • (future, guess) 차가 같다. (Muri chagaul geot gatda., “I guess the water is cold.”)
    cf. 물이 차가 것 같다. (Muri chagaun geot gatda., “The water seems cold.”) / 물이 차가 같다. (Muri chagawosseul geot gatda., “I guess the water was cold.”)
    물이 차가 것 같다. (Muri chagaul geot gatatda., “I guessed the water was cold.”) / 물이 차가 것 같다. (Muri chagawosseul geot gatatda., “I guessed the water had been cold.”)
  • (no tense) 그가 하 믿 만한 것이 있 가 없다. (Geuga haneun mal jung'e mideul manhan geosi isseul riga eopda., “Among the words he says, what is worth believing cannot ever exist.”)
  • (no tense) 목발이나 다리다쳐 사용한다. (Mokbareun barina darireul dachyeo jal georeul su eopseul ttae sayonghanda., “We use crutches when we don't walk well due to foot or leg injuries.”)

Etymology 3Edit



  1. Alternative form of (reul) used colloquially after pronouns and certain nouns ending in vowels