Korean edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From earlier ᄉᆞᆸᄂᆡ다 (-seumnaeda) in the nineteenth century, contracted from ᄉᆞᆸᄂᆞ이다 (-seumnaida), used since the seventeenth century. The uncontracted form is still found as 습나이다 (-seumnaida), now archaic.

Ultimately formed by a merger of the Middle Korean verbal suffixes ᄉᆞᆸ〯 (Yale: -sǒp-, object honorific) + ᄂᆞ〮 (Yale: -nó-, present tense marker) + ᅌᅵ (Yale: -ngì-, addressee honorific for questions) + 다〮 (Yale: -tá, declarative mood marker).

The allomorph ㅂ니다 (-mnida) after sonorants represents the fact that the Middle Korean object honorific ᄉᆞᆸ〯 (Yale: -sǒp-) had the allomorph ᅀᆞᆸ〯 (-zǒp-) after sonorants, which became simply (-b-) after Middle Korean /z/ was (almost) unconditionally deleted in the sixteenth century.

Pronunciation edit

Revised Romanization?seumnida
Revised Romanization (translit.)?seubnida
Yale Romanization?qsupnita

Suffix edit

습니다 (-seumnida)

  1. Declarative suffix for sentence-final verbs in the 하십시오체 (hasipsioche, “formal polite”) speech level.
    고맙습니다.Gomapseumnida.Thank you.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Chinese:
  • Japanese: ニダ (nida)

References edit

  • 정언학 (Jeong Eon-hak) (2006), “통합형 어미 '습니다'류의 통시적 형성과 형태 분석”, in Gugeo gyoyuk, volume 121, pages 317—356