Appendix:Navajo alphabet

Letter Letter name IPA value Approximation
A aa [ɑ] a as in father
B bee [p] p as in spade
C* sxee N/A
Ch chee [tʃʰ] ch as in chin
Chʼ chʼee [tʃʼ] ch, but ejective
D dee [t] t as in stop
Dl dlee [tl] like a combination of t and l, as in atlas
Dz dzee [ts] ts as in cats
E ee [ɛ] e as in egg
F* eł/ef N/A
G gee [k] k as in skin
Gh ghee [ɣ] ch as in Scottish loch, but voiced
H hee [x] ch as in Scottish loch
Hw hwee [xʷ] like a combination of Scottish ch and w, as in Lochwinnoch
I ii [ɪ] i as in ink
J jee [tʃ] ch as in chin
K kee [kʰ] k as in kite
kʼee [kʼ] k, but ejective
Kw kwee [kʷʰ] qu as in queen
L lee [l] l as in lemon
Ł łee [ɬ] Welsh ll as in llwyd (grey)
M mee [m] m as in mother
N nee [n] n as in nine
O oo [o] oa as in oat
P* pee N/A
Q* kwah N/A
R* egh/er N/A
S see [s] s as in sun
Sh shee [ʃ] sh as in ship
T tee [tʰ] t as in tree
tʼee [tʼ] t, but ejective
tłee [tɬʰ] like a combination of t and Welsh ll
Tłʼ tłʼee [tɬʼ] like a combination of t and Welsh ll, but ejective
Ts tsee [tsʰ] ts as in cats
Tsʼ tsʼee [tsʼ] ts, but ejective
U* uu N/A
V* łwee/vee N/A
W wee [ɣʷ] like a combination of Scottish ch and w, but voiced
X eks [x] same as h
Y yee [ʝ] y as in yes, but stronger
Z zee [z] z as in zipper
Zh zhee [ʒ] s as in measure
ʼ saad niyíłtłáádígíí [ʔ] a glottal stop, as in uh-oh

Note: * = not present in the alphabet

The letters á, ą, ą́, é, ę, ę́, í, į, į́, ó, ǫ, ǫ́, ń are not treated as separate letters on their own in the Navajo alphabet, and instead are treated as the base letter plus diacritic, used in the orthography to show tone and nasalization. Long vowels are written double: aa, áa, aá, áá, etc. The letter x is considered a variant of h, used after s, ts, g, and z to avoid confusion with digraphs. It may also be used after sh and ch to avoid the potential confusion of an h following a digraph containing h. In many texts the infix -h-/-x- is always written -x-.

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