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This module is used to show headword lines, along with any annotations like genders, transliterations and inflections. It's used by the template {{head}}, via the submodule Module:headword/templates.


format_headword(heads, lang, sc)

Formats a headword, using the format appropriate for the given language object and script (see Module:script utilities#tag_text).

The heads parameter can either be a single string or a table of strings. If it's a table, then each string in the table is shown as a headword, separated by "or". This allows you to show multiple alternative headwords, such as when the same written form can be accented in different ways.

It has special behaviour in certain cases as well:

  • If an item in the heads parameter contains wikilinks, they are converted into language-section links for the given language (using Module:links#language_link, which is also used by {{l}}). For example, giving "[[give]] [[up]]" if the language provided is English will produce: [[give#English|give]] [[up#English|up]]. If string is prefixed with * or if any of the links are, then they are interpreted as reconstructed terms and it will create links to the appendix namespace as appropriate.
  • If heads is empty (nil or the empty table), it will default to mw.title.getCurrentTitle().subpageText (equivalent to {{SUBPAGENAME}} in templates).
    • If the page name contains spaces, it is split and each individual word is automatically wikilinked as above.
    • If the current page is in the appendix namespace, and the language's type (in Module:languages) is not appendix-constructed, then a * will be prepended to the headword to indicate that it is a reconstructed term.


format_transliteration(tr, lang)

If the transliteration is specified and non-empty, adds some stuff before and after it. For example, if the transliteration is 'foo' and the language is Hebrew, produces
 [[Wiktionary:Hebrew transliteration|•]] (<span lang="">foo</span>)
which looks like “ (foo)”.

(Note: the bullet/link is only added if the linked-to page actually exists.)


format_genders(genders, lang)

Format gender specifications using Module:gender and number. This function currently has fairly limited capabilities, but more may be added later.


format_inflections(inflections, lang, sc)

Format a list (table) of inflections, which are then concatenated together with commas and surrounded by parentheses. For example:

format_inflections({"first", "second", "third"}, "en", "Latn")


 (first, second, third)

displays as: (first, second, third)

If an element of the table is itself a table, then it is taken to consist of a list of labelled inflections:

  • The table must have a .label value which contains the label. It is displayed in italics and not linked.
  • The table may optionally have a .accel value. This value is used to support accelerated entry creation using WT:ACCEL. The "form-of" and "lang-(code)" classes are added automatically, so only the "(form)-form-of" class needs to be given, along with any other classes that may be needed.
  • The table may optionally have a .nolink value. If true, this will tell the function not to link to the terms, but only display them.
  • Numbered values in the table are the actual forms. They are formatted in bold text and converted to a link to the term. If a term already contains a link, it is converted into a section link using Module:links#language_link, just like in format_headword.
  • Forms are optional. If the table contains only the .label, then just the label is shown with no forms. If there is more than one form, they are shown with "or" between them.

For example:

    {label = "present", "krama"},
    {label = "past", "kramade"},
    {label = "past participle", "kramat"},
    "sv", "Latn")
    {label = "plural", accel = "plural-form-of", "voorbeelden"},
    "nl", "Latn")


 (''present'' <b lang=\"sv\">[[krama#Swedish|krama]]</b>, ''past'' <b lang=\"sv\">[[kramade#Swedish|kramade]]</b>, ''past participle'' <b lang=\"sv\">[[kramat#Swedish|kramat]]</b>)
 (''plural'' <span class=\"form-of lang-nl plural-form-of\"><b lang=\"nl\">[[voorbeelden#Dutch|voorbeelden]]</b></span>)

displays as:

(present krama, past kramade, past participle kramat)
(plural voorbeelden)

It is also possible, but optional, to supply a table instead of a term. This table can contain the keys .term (the actual term), .alt (alternative display form), .sc (script), .id (sense id) and .genders (list of genders). These are used the same way as for full_link in Module:links, and are passed directly to it.


    {label = "diminutive", {term = "Hündchen", genders = {"n"}}},
    "de", "Latn")


 (''diminutive'' <b lang=\"de\">[[Hündchen#German|Hündchen]]</b> <span class=\"gender\"><abbr title="neuter gender">n</abbr></span>)

displays as:

(diminutive Hündchen n)

Proposed/planned changes

  • Automatic transliteration for languages that support it. Note that the parameters of format_transliteration will need change for this to be implemented.
  • Checking for invalid genders, given a list genders that are valid for a particular language.

local export = {}

local lemmas = {
	["abbreviations"] = true,
	["acronyms"] = true,
	["adjectives"] = true,
	["adnominals"] = true,
	["adpositions"] = true,
	["adverbs"] = true,
	["affixes"] = true,
	["articles"] = true,
	["circumfixes"] = true,
	["circumpositions"] = true,
	["classifiers"] = true,
	["cmavo"] = true,
	["cmavo clusters"] = true,
	["cmene"] = true,
	["comparative adjectives"] = true,
	["comparative adverbs"] = true,
	["conjunctions"] = true,
	["contractions"] = true,
	["counters"] = true,
	["determiners"] = true,
	["diacritical marks"] = true,
	["equative adjectives"] = true,
	["fu'ivla"] = true,
	["gismu"] = true,
	["Han characters"] = true,
	["Han tu"] = true,
	["hanzi"] = true,
	["hanja"] = true,
	["idioms"] = true,
	["infixes"] = true,
	["interfixes"] = true,
	["initialisms"] = true,
	["interjections"] = true,
	["kanji"] = true,
	["letters"] = true,
	["ligatures"] = true,
	["lujvo"] = true,
	["morphemes"] = true,
	["non-constituents"] = true,
	["nouns"] = true,
	["numbers"] = true,
	["numeral symbols"] = true,
	["numerals"] = true,
	["particles"] = true,
	["phrases"] = true,
	["postpositions"] = true,
	["predicatives"] = true,
	["prefixes"] = true,
	["prepositions"] = true,
	["prepositional phrases"] = true,
	["preverbs"] = true,
	["pronominal adverbs"] = true,
	["pronouns"] = true,
	["proverbs"] = true,
	["proper nouns"] = true,
	["punctuation marks"] = true,
	["relatives"] = true,
	["roots"] = true,
	["suffixes"] = true,
	["superlative adjectives"] = true,
	["superlative adverbs"] = true,
	["syllables"] = true,
	["symbols"] = true,
	["verbs"] = true,

local nonlemmas = {
	["active participles"] = true,
	["adjectival participles"] = true,
	["adjective forms"] = true,
	["adjective comparative forms"] = true,
	["adjective equative forms"] = true,
	["adjective superlative forms"] = true,
	["adverb forms"] = true,
	["adverb comparative forms"] = true,
	["adverb superlative forms"] = true,
	["adverbial participles"] = true,
	["agent participles"] = true,
	["article forms"] = true,
	["circumfix forms"] = true,
	["combined forms"] = true,
	["determiner comparative forms"] = true,
	["determiner forms"] = true,
	["determiner superlative forms"] = true,
	["diminutive nouns"] = true,
	["future participles"] = true,
	["gerunds"] = true,
	["infinitive forms"] = true,
	["infinitives"] = true,
	["jyutping"] = true,
	["kanji readings"] = true,
	["misspellings"] = true,
	["negative participles"] = true,
	["nominal participles"] = true,
	["noun case forms"] = true,
	["noun forms"] = true,
	["noun plural forms"] = true,
	["numeral forms"] = true,
	["participles"] = true,
	["participle forms"] = true,
	["particle forms"] = true,
	["passive participles"] = true,
	["past active participles"] = true,
	["past participles"] = true,
	["past participle forms"] = true,
	["past passive participles"] = true,
	["perfect active participles"] = true,
	["perfect passive participles"] = true,
	["pinyin"] = true,
	["plurals"] = true,
	["postposition forms"] = true,
	["prefix forms"] = true,
	["preposition contractions"] = true,
	["preposition forms"] = true,
	["prepositional pronouns"] = true,
	["present active participles"] = true,
	["present participles"] = true,
	["present passive participles"] = true,
	["pronoun forms"] = true,
	["proper noun forms"] = true,
	["proper noun plural forms"] = true,
	["rafsi"] = true,
	["romanizations"] = true,
	["singulatives"] = true,
	["suffix forms"] = true,
	["verb forms"] = true,
	["verbal nouns"] = true,

local notranslit = {
	["az"] = true,
	["bbc"] = true,
	["bug"] = true,
	["cia"] = true,
	["cjm"] = true,
	["cmn"] = true,
	["hak"] = true,
	["ja"] = true,
	["lad"] = true,
	["lzh"] = true,
	["ms"] = true,
	["mul"] = true,
	["nan"] = true,
	["oj"] = true,
	["pi"] = true,
	["ro"] = true,
	["ryu"] = true,
	["sh"] = true,
	["tgt"] = true,
	["th"] = true,
	["tly"] = true,
	["und"] = true,
	["vi"] = true,
	["yue"] = true,
	["zh"] = true,

local function preprocess(data)
	if type(data.heads) ~= "table" then
		data.heads = {data.heads}
	if type(data.translits) ~= "table" then
		data.translits = {data.translits}
	if #data.heads == 0 then
		data.heads = {""}
	-- Create a default headword.
	local default_head = mw.title.getCurrentTitle().subpageText
	-- Determine if term is reconstructed
	local is_reconstructed = data.lang:getType() == "reconstructed" or mw.title.getCurrentTitle().nsText == "Reconstruction"
	-- Add links to multi-word page names when appropriate
	if data.lang:getCode() ~= "zh" then
		local WORDBREAKCHARS = "([%p%s]+)"
		local EXCLUDECHARS = "([^-־'.·*]+)" -- workaround for excluding characters from the above
		local contains_words = false; mw.ustring.gsub(default_head, WORDBREAKCHARS, function(b) contains_words = contains_words or mw.ustring.match(b, "^" .. EXCLUDECHARS .. "$"); end)
		if (not is_reconstructed) and contains_words then
			local function workaround_to_exclude_chars(s)
				return mw.ustring.gsub(s, EXCLUDECHARS, "]]%1[[")
			default_head = "[[" .. mw.ustring.gsub(default_head, WORDBREAKCHARS, workaround_to_exclude_chars) .. "]]"
			-- default_head = "[[" .. mw.ustring.gsub(default_head, WORDBREAKCHARS, "]]%1[[") .. "]]" -- use this when workaround is no longer needed
			default_head = mw.ustring.gsub(default_head, "%[%[%]%]", "") -- remove any empty links (which could have been created above at the beginning or end of the string)
	if is_reconstructed then
		default_head = "*" .. default_head
	-- If a head is the empty string "", then replace it with the default
	for i, head in ipairs(data.heads) do
		if head == "" then
			head = default_head
		data.heads[i] = head
	-- Try to detect the script if it was not provided
	-- We use the first headword for this, and assume that all of them have the same script
	-- This *should* always be true, right?
	if not then = require("Module:scripts").findBestScript(data.heads[1], data.lang)
	-- Make transliterations
	for i, head in ipairs(data.heads) do
		local translit = data.translits[i]
		-- Try to generate a transliteration if necessary
		-- Generate it if the script is not Latn or similar, and if no transliteration was provided
		if translit == "-" then
			translit = nil
		elseif not translit and not (("Latn", nil, true)) or == "Latinx" or == "None") then
			translit = data.lang:transliterate(require("Module:links").remove_links(head),
			-- There is still no transliteration?
			-- Add the entry to a cleanup category.
			if not translit and not notranslit[data.lang:getCode()] then
				translit = "<small>transliteration needed</small>"
				table.insert(data.categories, data.lang:getCanonicalName() .. " terms needing transliteration")
			if translit and data.lang:link_tr() then
				translit = require("Module:links").full_link({term = translit, lang = data.lang, sc = require("Module:scripts").getByCode("Latn")}, nil, false)
		data.translits[i] = translit

-- Format a headword with transliterations
local function format_headword(data)
	local m_links = require("Module:links")
	local m_scriptutils = require("Module:script utilities")
	-- Are there non-empty transliterations?
	-- Need to do it this way because translit[1] might be nil while translit[2] is not
	local has_translits = false
	-- Format the headwords
	for i, head in ipairs(data.heads) do
		if data.translits[i] then
			has_translits = true
		-- Apply processing to the headword, for formatting links and such
		if head:find("[[", nil, true) then
			head = m_links.language_link({term = head, lang = data.lang}, false)
		-- Add language and script wrapper
		head = m_scriptutils.tag_text(head, data.lang,, "head")
		data.heads[i] = head
	local translits_formatted = ""
	if has_translits then
		-- Format the transliterations
		for i, head in ipairs(data.heads) do
			local translit = data.translits[i]
			if not translit then
				translit = "?"
			translit = "<span class=\"tr\" lang=\"\">" .. translit .. "</span>"
			data.translits[i] = translit
		translits_formatted = " &lrm;(<span class=\"tr\" lang=\"\">" .. table.concat(data.translits, " ''or'' ") .. "</span>)"
		if .. " transliteration", "Wiktionary").exists then
			translits_formatted = " [[Wiktionary:" .. data.lang:getCanonicalName() .. " transliteration|•]]" .. translits_formatted
	return table.concat(data.heads, " ''or'' ") .. translits_formatted

local function format_genders(data)
	if data.genders and #data.genders > 0 then
		local gen = require("Module:gender and number")
		return "&nbsp;" .. gen.format_list(data.genders, data.lang)
		return ""

local function format_inflection_parts(data, parts)
	local m_links = require("Module:links")
	for key, part in ipairs(parts) do
		if type(part) ~= "table" then
			part = {term = part}
		local qualifiers = ""
		if part.qualifiers and #part.qualifiers > 0 then
			qualifiers = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "qualifier", args = part.qualifiers} .. " "
		local partaccel = part.accel
		-- Convert the term into a full link
		-- Don't show a transliteration here, the consensus seems to be not to
		-- show them in headword lines to avoid clutter.
		part = m_links.full_link({term = not part.nolink and part.term or nil, alt = part.alt or (part.nolink and part.term or nil), lang = part.lang or data.lang, sc = or (not part.lang and, id =, genders = part.genders, tr = part.translit or ((not (parts.enable_auto_translit or data.lang:getCode() == "ar")) and "-" or nil)}, "bold", false)
		if parts.accel or partaccel then
			part = "<span class=\"form-of lang-" .. data.lang:getCode() .. " " .. (parts.accel or "") .. " " .. (partaccel or "") .. "\">" .. part .. "</span>"
		part = qualifiers .. part
		parts[key] = part
	local parts_output = ""
	if #parts > 0 then
		parts_output = " " .. table.concat(parts, " ''or'' ")
	elseif parts.request then
		parts_output = " <small>[please provide]</small>" .. require("Module:utilities").format_categories({data.lang:getCanonicalName() .. " entries needing inflection"}, lang)
	return "''" .. parts.label .. "''" .. parts_output

-- Format the inflections following the headword
local function format_inflections(data)
	if data.inflections and #data.inflections > 0 then
		-- Format each inflection individually
		for key, infl in ipairs(data.inflections) do
			data.inflections[key] = format_inflection_parts(data, infl)
		return " &lrm;(" .. table.concat(data.inflections, ", ") .. ")"
		return ""

function export.show_headword_line(data)
	-- Check the namespace against the language type
	if mw.title.getCurrentTitle().nsText == "" then
		if data.lang:getType() == "reconstructed" then
			error("Entries for this language must be placed in the Reconstruction: namespace.")
		elseif data.lang:getType() == "appendix-constructed" then
			error("Entries for this language must be placed in the Appendix: namespace.")
	data.categories = {}
	local tracking_categories = {}
	-- Is it a lemma category?
	if lemmas[data.pos_category] or lemmas[data.pos_category:gsub("^reconstructed ", "")] then
		table.insert(data.categories, data.lang:getCanonicalName() .. " lemmas")
	-- Is it a nonlemma category?
	elseif nonlemmas[data.pos_category] or nonlemmas[data.pos_category:gsub("^reconstructed ", "")] or lemmas[data.pos_category:gsub("^mutated ", "")] or nonlemmas[data.pos_category:gsub("^mutated ", "")] then
		table.insert(data.categories, data.lang:getCanonicalName() .. " non-lemma forms")
	-- It's neither; we don't know what this category is, so tag it with a tracking category.
		table.insert(tracking_categories, "head tracking/unrecognized pos")
		require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/unrecognized pos")
		require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/unrecognized pos/lang/" .. data.lang:getCode())
		require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/unrecognized pos/pos/" .. data.pos_category)
	table.insert(data.categories, data.lang:getCanonicalName() .. " " .. data.pos_category)
	-- Preprocess
	-- Format and return all the gathered information
		format_headword(data) ..
		format_genders(data) ..
		format_inflections(data) ..
		require("Module:utilities").format_categories(data.categories, data.lang, data.sort_key) ..
		require("Module:utilities").format_categories(tracking_categories, data.lang, data.sort_key)

function export.full_headword(lang, sc, heads, translits, genders, inflections, categories, sort_key)
	local data = {lang = lang, sc = sc, heads = heads, translits = translits, genders = genders, inflections = inflections, pos_category = nil, sort_key = sort_key}
	local tracking_categories = {}
	categories = categories or {}
	-- Were any categories specified?
	if #categories == 0 then
		if lang:getCode() ~= "und" then
			table.insert(tracking_categories, "head tracking/no pos")
			require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/no pos")
			require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/no pos/lang/" .. lang:getCode())
		for _, cat in ipairs(categories) do
			-- Does the category begin with the language name? If not, tag it with a tracking category.
			if mw.ustring.sub(cat, 1, mw.ustring.len(lang:getCanonicalName()) + 1) ~= lang:getCanonicalName() .. " " then
				table.insert(tracking_categories, "head tracking/no lang category")
				require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/no lang category")
				require("Module:debug").track("head tracking/no lang category/lang/" .. lang:getCode())
		if mw.ustring.sub(categories[1], 1, mw.ustring.len(lang:getCanonicalName() .. " ")) == lang:getCanonicalName() .. " " then
			data.pos_category = mw.ustring.sub(categories[1], mw.ustring.len(lang:getCanonicalName()) + 2)
			table.remove(categories, 1)
	local standard = data.lang:getStandardCharacters()
	if standard then
		if mw.ustring.len(mw.title.getCurrentTitle().subpageText) ~= 1 then
			for character in mw.ustring.gmatch(mw.title.getCurrentTitle().subpageText, "([^" .. standard .. "])") do
				table.insert(categories, lang:getCanonicalName() .. " terms spelled with " .. mw.ustring.upper(character))
		export.show_headword_line(data) ..
		require("Module:utilities").format_categories(categories, data.lang, data.sort_key) ..
		require("Module:utilities").format_categories(tracking_categories, data.lang, data.sort_key)

return export