This module provides many useful utility functions for creating and processing wikilinks within Wiktionary. It is used by the linking templates {{m}} and {{l}} through the functions in Module:links/templates.


full_link(data, face, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)

Creates a full link, with annotations (see format_link_annotations), in the style of {{l}} or {{m}}.

The first argument, data, must be a table. It contains the various elements that can be supplied as parameters to {{l}} or {{m}}:

	term = entry_to_link_to,
	alt = link_text_or_displayed_text,
	lang = language_object,
	sc = script_object,
	id = sense_id,
	genders = { "gender1", "gender2", ... },
	tr = transliteration,
	gloss = gloss,
	pos = part_of_speech_tag,
	lit = literal_translation,
	interwiki = interwiki,

Any one of the items in the data table may be nil, but an error will be shown if neither term nor alt nor tr is present.

Thus, calling full_link{ term = term, lang = lang, sc = sc }, where term is an entry name, lang is a language object from Module:languages, and sc is a script object from Module:scripts, will give a plain link similar to the one produced by the template {{l}}, and calling full_link( { term = term, lang = lang, sc = sc }, "term" ) will give a link similar to the one produced by the template {{m}}.

The function will:

  • Try to determine the script, based on the characters found in the term or alt argument, if the script was not given.
  • Call language_link on the term or alt forms, to remove diacritics in the page name, process any embedded wikilinks and create links to Reconstruction or Appendix pages when necessary.
  • Call Module:script utilities#tag_text to add the appropriate language and script tags to the term, and to italicize terms written in the Latin script if necessary.
  • Generate a transliteration, based on the alt or term arguments, if the script is not Latin and no transliteration was provided.
  • Add the annotations (transliteration, gender, gloss etc.) after the link.


format_link_annotations(lang, info)

Formats annotations that are displayed with a link. Annotations are the extra bits of information that are displayed following the linked term, and include things such as gender, transliteration, gloss and so on. The first argument is the language object, the second is a table possessing some or all of the following keys:

Table containing a list of gender specifications in the style of Module:gender and number.
Gloss that translates the term in the link, or gives some other descriptive information.
Part of speech of the linked term. If the given argument matches one of the templates in Category:Part of speech tags, then call that to show a part-of-speech tag. Otherwise, just show the given text as it is.
Literal meaning of the term, if the usual meaning is figurative or idiomatic.

Any of the above values can be omitted from the info argument. If a completely empty table is given (with no annotations at all), then an empty string is returned.


language_link(data, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)

Creates a basic link to the given term. It links to the language section (such as ==English==), but it does not add language and script wrappers, so any code that uses this function should call the tag_text from Module:script utilities to add such wrappers itself at some point.

The first argument, data, may contain the following items, a subset of the items used in the data argument of full_link. If any other items are included, they are ignored.

	term = entry_to_link_to,
	alt = link_text_or_displayed_text,
	lang = language_object,
	id = sense_id,
Text to turn into a link. This is generally the name of a page. The text can contain wikilinks already embedded in it. These are processed individually just like a single link would be. The alt argument is ignored in this case.
alt (optional)
The alternative display for the link, if different from the linked page. If this is nil, the text argument is used instead (much like regular wikilinks). If text contains wikilinks in it, this argument is ignored and has no effect.
The language object for the term being linked. If this argument is defined, the function will determine the language's canonical name (see Template:language data documentation), and point the link or links in the term to the language's section of an entry, or to a language-specific senseid if the id argument is defined.
id (optional)
If this argument is defined, the link will point to a language-specific sense id (identifier) created by the template {{senseid}}. A sense id consists of the language's canonical name, and a string, with any spaces replaced with hyphens (-). This is useful when a term has more than one sense in a language.

The second argument is as follows:

If true, the function will also generate links to the current page. The default (false) will not generate a link but generate a bolded "self link" instead.

The following special options are processed for each link (both simple text and with embedded wikilinks):

  • The target page name will be processed to generate the correct entry name. This is done by the makeEntryName function in Module:languages, using the entry_name replacements in the language's data file (see Template:language data documentation for more information) This function is generally used to automatically strip dictionary-only diacritics that are not part of the normal written form of a language.
  • If the text starts with *, then the term is considered a reconstructed term, and a link to the Appendix: namespace will be created. If the text contains embedded wikilinks, then * is automatically applied to each one individually, while preserving the displayed form of each link as it was given. This allows linking to phrases containing multiple reconstructed terms, while only showing the * once at the beginning.
  • If the text starts with :, then the link is treated as "raw" and the above steps are skipped. This can be used in rare cases where the page name begins with * or if diacritics should not be stripped. For example:
    • {{l|en|*nix}} links to the nonexistent page Appendix:English/nix (* is interpreted as a reconstruction), but {{l|en|:*nix}} links to *nix.
    • {{l|sl|Franche-Comté}} links to the nonexistent page Franche-Comte (é is converted to e by makeEntryName), but {{l|sl|:Franche-Comté}} links to Franche-Comté.



Replaces all [[wikilinks]] with their linktitle as simple text. This function can be invoked either from a template or from another module.

local export = {}

local ignore_cap = {
	["ko"] = true,

local phonetic_extraction = {
	["th"] = "Module:th"

local pos_tags = {
	["a"] = "adjective",
	["adv"] = "adverb",
	["int"] = "interjection",
	["n"] = "noun",
	["pron"] = "pronoun",
	["v"] = "verb",
	["vi"] = "intransitive verb",
	["vt"] = "transitive verb",
	["vti"] = "transitive and intransitive verb",

local unsupported_titles = mw.loadData("Module:links/unsupported titles")

function export.getLinkPage(target, lang)
	if unsupported_titles[target] then
		return "Unsupported titles/" .. unsupported_titles[target]
	-- If the link contains unexpanded template parameters, then don't create a link.
	if target:find("{{{", nil, true) then
		return nil
	if target:find("^:") or target:find("^w:") or target:find("^wikipedia:") then
		return target
	-- Remove diacritics from the page name
	target = lang:makeEntryName(target)
	-- Link to appendix for reconstructed terms and terms in appendix-only languages
	if target:find("^*.") then
		if lang:getCode() == "und" then
			return nil
		target = "Reconstruction:" .. lang:getCanonicalName() .. "/" .. mw.ustring.sub(target, 2)
	elseif lang:getType() == "reconstructed" then
		error("The specified language " .. lang:getCanonicalName() .. " is unattested, while the given word is not marked with '*' to indicate that it is reconstructed")
	elseif lang:getType() == "appendix-constructed" then
		target = "Appendix:" .. lang:getCanonicalName() .. "/" .. target
	return target

-- Make a language-specific link from given link's parts
local function makeLangLink(link, lang, id, allowSelfLink)
	-- If there is no display form, then create a default one
	if not link.display then
		link.display =
		-- Strip the prefix from the displayed form
		-- TODO: other interwiki links?
		if link.display:find("^:") and not unsupported_titles[link.display] then
			link.display = link.display:gsub("^:", "")
		elseif link.display:find("^w:") then
			link.display = link.display:gsub("^w:", "")
		elseif link.display:find("^wikipedia:") then
			link.display = link.display:gsub("^wikipedia:", "")
	-- Process the target = export.getLinkPage(, lang)
	if not then
		return link.display
	-- If the target is the same as the current page, then return a "self-link" like the software does
	if not allowSelfLink and not id and ( == mw.title.getCurrentTitle().prefixedText or == ":" .. mw.title.getCurrentTitle().prefixedText) then
		return "<strong class=\"selflink\">" .. link.display .. "</strong>"
	-- Add fragment
	-- Do not add a section link to "Undetermined", as such sections do not exist and are invalid.
	-- TabbedLanguages handles links without a section by linking to the "last visited" section,
	-- but adding "Undetermined" would break that feature.
	if not ("^w:") or"^wikipedia:")) then
		if link.fragment or mw.ustring.find(, "#$") then
			require("Module:debug").track("links/fragment/" .. lang:getCode())
		if not link.fragment and lang:getCode() ~= "und" then
			if id then
				link.fragment = lang:getCanonicalName() .. "-" .. id
			elseif not"^Appendix:") and not"^Reconstruction:") then
				link.fragment = lang:getCanonicalName()
	-- This allows linking to pages like [[sms:a]] without it being treated weirdly. = mw.ustring.gsub(, ":", "&#x3a;")
	return "[[" .. .. (link.fragment and "#" .. link.fragment or "") .. "|" .. link.display .. "]]"

-- Split a link into its parts
local function parseLink(linktext)
	local link = {target = linktext}
	local found, _, first, second
	found, _, first, second = mw.ustring.find(, "^([^|]+)|(.+)$")
	if found then = first
		link.display = second
		link.display =
	found, _, first, second = mw.ustring.find(, "^(.+)#(.+)$")
	if found then = first
		link.fragment = second
	return link

-- Creates a basic wikilink to the given term. If the text already contains
-- links, these are replaced with links to the correct section.
function export.language_link(data, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)
	if type(data) ~= "table" then
		error("The first argument to the function language_link must be a table. See Module:links/documentation for more information.")
	local text = data.term
	if ignore_cap[data.lang:getCode()] and text then
		text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "%^", "")
	-- If the text begins with * and another character,
	-- then act as if each link begins with *
	local allReconstructed = false
	if text:find("^*.") then
		allReconstructed = true
	-- Do we have embedded wikilinks?
	if text:find("[[", nil, true) then
		if data.alt then
		if then
		-- Begins and ends with a wikilink tag
		if mw.ustring.find(text, "^%[%[(.+)%]%]$") then
			-- There are no [ ] in between.
			-- This makes the wikilink tag redundant.
			if mw.ustring.find(text, "^%[%[[^%[%]]+%]%]$") then
				require("Module:debug").track("links/redundant wikilink")
				local temp = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "^%[%[(.+)%]%]$", "%1")
				temp = mw.ustring.gsub(temp, "%]%], %[%[", "|")
				if not mw.ustring.find(temp, "[%[%]]") then
		text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "%[%[([^%]]+)%]%]",
				local link = parseLink(linktext)
				if allReconstructed then = "*" ..
				return makeLangLink(link, data.lang,, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)
		-- Remove the extra * at the beginning if it's immediately followed
		-- by a link whose display begins with * too
		if allReconstructed then
			text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "^%*%[%[([^|%]]+)|%*", "[[%1|*")
		-- There is no embedded wikilink, make a link using the parameters.
		text = makeLangLink({target = text, display = data.alt}, data.lang,, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)
	return text
local function mark(text, itemType, face)
	local tag = { "", "" }
	if itemType == "gloss" then
		tag = { '<span class="mention-gloss-double-quote">“</span><span class="mention-gloss">', '</span><span class="mention-gloss-double-quote">”</span>' }
	elseif itemType == "tr" then
		if face == "term" then
			tag = { '<span lang="" class="tr mention-tr">', '</span>' }
			tag = { '<span lang="" class="tr">', '</span>' }
	elseif itemType == "annotations" then
		tag = { '<span class="mention-gloss-paren">(</span>', '<span class="mention-gloss-paren">)</span>' }
	if type(text) == "string" then
		return tag[1] .. text .. tag[2]
		return ""

-- Format the annotations (things following the linked term)
function export.format_link_annotations(data, face)
	local output = {}
	-- Interwiki link
	if data.interwiki then
		table.insert(output, data.interwiki)
	-- Genders
	if data.genders and #data.genders > 0 then
		local m_gen = require("Module:gender and number")
		table.insert(output, "&nbsp;" .. m_gen.format_list(data.genders, data.lang))
	local annotations = {}
	-- Transliteration
	if then
		table.insert(annotations, mark(, "tr", face))
	-- Gloss/translation
	if data.gloss then
		table.insert(annotations, mark(data.gloss, "gloss"))
	-- Part of speech
	if data.pos then
		table.insert(annotations, pos_tags[data.pos] or data.pos)
	-- Literal/sum-of-parts meaning
	if data.lit then
		table.insert(annotations, "literally " .. mark(data.lit, "gloss"))
	if #annotations > 0 then
		table.insert(output, " " .. mark(table.concat(annotations, ", "), "annotations"))
	return table.concat(output)

-- A version of {{l}} or {{m}} that can be called from other modules too
function export.full_link(data, face, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)
	if type(data) ~= "table" then
		error("The first argument to the function full_link must be a table. See Module:links/documentation for more information.")
	-- Create the link
	local output = {}
	local categories = {}
	local link = ""
	local annotations
	local m_utilities = require("Module:utilities")
	local m_scriptutils = require("Module:script utilities")
	-- Is there any text to show?
	if (data.term or data.alt) then
		-- Try to detect the script if it was not provided
		if not then = require("Module:scripts").findBestScript(data.alt or data.term, data.lang)
		-- Only make a link if the term has been given, otherwise just show the alt text without a link
		link = m_scriptutils.tag_text(data.term and export.language_link(data, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons) or data.alt, data.lang,, face)
		--[[	No term to show.
				Is there at least a transliteration we can work from?	]]
		link = m_scriptutils.request_script(data.lang,
		if link == "" or not or == "-" then
			-- No link to show, and no transliteration either. Show a term request.
			local category = ""
			if mw.title.getCurrentTitle().nsText ~= "Template" then
				table.insert(categories, "[[Category:" .. data.lang:getCanonicalName() .. " term requests]]")
			link = "<small>[Term?]</small>"
	table.insert(output, link)
	if == "" or == "-" then = nil
	elseif phonetic_extraction[data.lang:getCode()] then
		local m_phonetic = require(phonetic_extraction[data.lang:getCode()]) = or m_phonetic.getTranslit(export.remove_links(data.term))
	elseif (data.term or data.alt)
		and not (("Latn", nil, true)) or == "Latinx") then
		-- Try to generate a transliteration if necessary
		local automated_tr = data.lang:transliterate(export.remove_links(data.alt or data.term),
		if automated_tr then
			local manual_tr =
			if manual_tr then
				if manual_tr == automated_tr then
						"[[Category:Terms with redundant transliterations]]"
						.. "[[Category:Terms with redundant transliterations/" .. data.lang:getCode() .. "]]"
						"[[Category:Terms with manual transliterations different from the automated ones]]"
						.. "[[Category:Terms with manual transliterations different from the automated ones/" .. data.lang:getCode() .. "]]"
			if (not manual_tr) or data.lang:overrideManualTranslit() then = automated_tr
	-- Link to the transliteration entry for languages that require this
	if and data.lang:link_tr() then = export.language_link{ lang = data.lang, term = }
	annotations = export.format_link_annotations(data, face)
	table.insert(output, annotations)
	return table.concat(output) .. table.concat(categories)

-- Strips all square brackets out or replaces them.
function export.remove_links(text)
	if type(text) == "table" then text = text.args[1] end; if not text then text = "" end
	text = text:gsub("%[%[Category:[^|%]]-|?[^|%]]-%]%]", "")
	text = text:gsub("%[%[[^|%]]-|", "")
	text = text:gsub("%[%[", "")
	text = text:gsub("%]%]", "")

	return text

function export.english_links(text)
	local lang = require("Module:languages").getByCode("en")
	text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "%[%[([^%]]+)%]%]",
			local link = parseLink(linktext)
			return makeLangLink(link, lang, nil, true, false)
	return text

return export