This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





Petrified instrumental singular of *h₁er- (separately, loosely) + *-éh₁.




  1. sparsely, rarely, loosely

Derived terms

  • *h₁réh₁-dʰ-o-s[1]
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *rēˀdas[3][4]
    • Proto-Celtic: *rēdis (easy, smooth) (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₁réh₁-to-s[2]
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *rēˀtas (sparse, spacious, rare, solitary)
  • *h₁r̥h₁-ró-s[5][2]
    • Proto-Italic: *rāros
      • Latin: rārus (loose, sparse, rare) (see there for further descendants)

Further reading

  • Bender, Harold H. (1921) “rẽtas”, in A Lithuanian Etymological Index, Princeton: Princeton University Press, page 210
  • Fraenkel, Ernst (1955, 1962–1965) “rẽtas 1.”, in Litauisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, volume II, Heidelberg-Göttingen: Carl Winter and Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, pages 723b-724a
  • Gluhak, Alemko (1993) “rijédak”, in Hrvatski etimološki rječnik [Croatian Etymology Dictionary] (in Serbo-Croatian), Zagreb: August Cesarec, →ISBN, page 527


  1. 1.0 1.1 Pokorny, Julius (1959) “er-, erə-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 1, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 332-333
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “έρημος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 456-457
  3. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) “*rědъkъ”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 434
  4. 4.0 4.1 Derksen, Rick (2015) “rēns”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 547
  5. ^ Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1991) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 2), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 310f